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Baghdadi Arabic

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Baghdadi Arabic
اللهجة البغدادية
Native toMesopotamia
RegionBaghdad
Native speakers
About 15.7 million speakers (2014–2016)[1]
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3
acm – Mesopotamian Arabic
GlottologNone
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Baghdadi Arabic is the Arabic dialect spoken in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq. During the 20th century, Baghdadi Arabic has become the lingua franca of Iraq, and the language of commerce and education. It is considered a subset of Iraqi Arabic.[2]

Phonology

Vowels

The vowel phoneme /eː/ (from standard Arabic /aj/) is usually realised as an opening diphthong, for most speakers only slightly diphthongised [ɪe̯], but for others a more noticeable [iɛ̯], such that, for instance, lēš ("why") will sound like leeyesh, much like a drawl in English. There's a vowel phoneme that evolved from the diphthong (/aw/) to resemble more of a long (/o:/) sound, as in words such as kaun ("universe") shifting to kōn. A schwa sound [ə] is mainly heard in unstressed and stressed open and closed syllables.

The Vowel Phonemes of Baghdadi Arabic
Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Close /ɪ/ /u/ /iː/ /uː/
Mid /ə/ /eː/ /oː/
Open /æ/ /aː/

Consonants

Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background.[3] Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Arabic is rich in uvular, pharyngeal, and pharyngealized ("emphatic") sounds. The emphatic coronals (/sˤ/, /tˤ/, and /ðˤ/) cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants.[citation needed] The phonemes /p/پ⟩ and /v/ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and they can be pronounced as /b/ب⟩ and /f/ف⟩ respectively depending on the speaker.[4][5]

Baghdadi Arabic consonant phonemes
Labial Dental Coronal Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain emphatic
Nasal m n
Stop/Affricate voiceless (p) t t͡ʃ k (q) ʔ
voiced b d d͡ʒ g
Fricative voiceless f θ s ~ ɕ ʃ x ~ χ ħ ~ ʜ h
voiced (v) ð z ~ ʑ ðˤ ɣ ~ ʁ ʕ ~ ʢ
Tap r
Approximant l ɫ j w

Phonetic notes:

  • /p/ and /v/ occur mostly in borrowings from Persian, and may be assimilated to /b/ or /f/ in some speakers.
  • [q] is heard in borrowings of non-Arabic languages.
  • /ɡ/ is pronunciation of /q/ in Baghdad Arabic and the rest of southern Mesopotamian dialects.
  • The gemination of the flap /ɾ/ results in a trill /r/.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken – Ethnologue". Ethnologue. Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth edition. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  2. ^ Hann, Geoff (7 August 2015). Iraq: The Ancient Sites & Iraqi Kurdistan: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-488-4. OCLC 880400955.
  3. ^ Holes (2004:58)
  4. ^ Teach Yourself Arabic, by Jack Smart (Author), Frances Altorfer (Author)
  5. ^ Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (transl. of Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart, 1952)

Sources

Further reading

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Baghdadi Arabic
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