For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Artemis program.

Artemis program

Artemis program
An arrowhead combined with a depiction of a trans-lunar injection trajectory forms an "A", with an "Artemis" wordmark printed underneath
Program overview
CountryUnited States
OrganizationNASA and partners: ESA, JAXA, DLR, ASI, ISA and CSA
PurposeSustainable crewed lunar exploration
StatusOngoing
Program history
CostUS$93+ billion (2012–2025),
$53 billion in 2021-2025[1]
Duration2017; 7 years ago (2017)–present[2]
First flightArtemis 1 (16 November 2022, 06:47:44 UTC)[3][4]
First crewed flightArtemis 2 (NET September 2025)[5]
Launch site(s)
Vehicle information
Crewed vehicle(s)
Launch vehicle(s)

The Artemis program is a Moon exploration program that is led by the United States' National Aeronoautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was formally established in 2017 via Space Policy Directive 1. The Artemis program is intended to reestablish a human presence on the Moon for the first time since the Apollo 17 moon mission in 1972. The program's stated long-term goal is to establish a permanent base on the Moon to facilitate human missions to Mars.

Two principal elements of the Artemis program are derived from the now-cancelled Constellation program: the Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System (as a reincarnation of Ares V). Other elements of the program, such as the Lunar Gateway space station and the Human Landing System, are in development by government space agencies and private spaceflight companies. This collaboration is bound together by the Artemis Accords and governmental contracts.

The Space Launch System, Orion spacecraft and the Human Landing System form the main spaceflight infrastructure for Artemis, and the Lunar Gateway plays a supporting role in human habitation. Supporting infrastructures for Artemis include the Commercial Lunar Payload Services, VIPER rover, development of ground infrastructures, Artemis Base Camp on the Moon, Moon rovers and spacesuits. Some aspects of the program have been criticized, such as the use of a near-rectilinear halo orbit and the sustainability of the space program.

Orion's first launch on the Space Launch System was originally set in 2016, but faced numerous delays; it launched on 16 November 2022 as the Artemis 1 mission, with robots and mannequins aboard. According to plan, the crewed Artemis 2 launch is expected to take place in late 2025, the Artemis 3 crewed lunar landing is scheduled for late 2026, the Artemis 4 docking with the Lunar Gateway in late 2028, the Artemis 5 docking with the European Space Agency's ESPRIT, Canada's Canadarm3, and NASA's Lunar Terrain Vehicle in early 2030, and the Artemis 6 docking which is expected to integrate the Science Airlock with the Lunar Gateway station in early 2031. After Artemis 6, NASA expects yearly landings on the Moon to occur from then on.

Overview

Planned missions of Artemis program

The Artemis program is organized around a series of Space Launch System (SLS) missions. These space missions will increase in complexity and are scheduled to occur at intervals of a year or more. NASA and its partners have planned Artemis 1 through Artemis 5 missions; later Artemis missions have also been proposed. Each SLS mission centers on the launch of an SLS launch vehicle carrying an Orion spacecraft. Missions after Artemis 2 will depend on support missions launched by other organizations and spacecraft for support functions.

SLS missions

Artemis 1 (2022) was the successful uncrewed test of the SLS and Orion, and was the first test flight for both craft.[i] The Artemis 1 mission placed Orion into a lunar orbit and then returned to Earth. The SLS Block 1 design uses the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) second stage, which performs the trans-lunar injection burn to send Orion to lunar space. For Artemis 1, Orion braked into a polar distant retrograde lunar orbit and remained for about six days before boosting back toward Earth. The Orion capsule separated from its service module, re-entered the atmosphere for aerobraking, and splashed down under parachutes.[9]

Artemis 2 (2025) is planned to be the first crewed test flight of SLS and the Orion spacecraft.[5] The four crew members will perform extensive testing in Earth orbit, and Orion will then be boosted into a free-return trajectory around the Moon, which will return Orion back to Earth for re-entry and splashdown. Launch is scheduled for no earlier than September 2025.[5]

Artemis 3 (2026) is planned to be the first American crewed lunar landing since Apollo 17 in December 1972.[5] The mission depends on a support mission to place a Starship Human Landing System (HLS) in a near-rectilinear halo orbit (NRHO) of the Moon prior to the launch of SLS/Orion. After Starship HLS reaches NRHO, SLS/Orion will send the Orion spacecraft with a crew of four to rendezvous and dock with HLS.[ii] Two astronauts will transfer to HLS, which will descend to the lunar surface and spend about 6.5 days on the surface.[10] The astronauts will perform at least two Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) on the surface before the HLS ascends to return them to a rendezvous with Orion. Orion will return the four astronauts to Earth. Launch is scheduled for no earlier than September 2026.[5]

Artemis 4 (2028) is planned to be the second crewed lunar landing mission. Orion and an upgraded Starship HLS will dock with the Lunar Gateway station in NRHO prior to the landing. A prior support mission will deliver the first two Lunar Gateway modules to NRHO. The extra power of this mission's SLS Block 1B will allow it to deliver the I-HAB Gateway module for connection to the Lunar Gateway. Launch is scheduled for no earlier than September 2028.[11][12]

Artemis 5 (2030) is planned to be the third crewed lunar landing, which will deliver four astronauts to the Lunar Gateway station. The mission will deliver the European Space Agency's ESPRIT refueling and communications module and Canadarm3, a Canadian-built robotic arm system for the Gateway. Also delivered will be NASA's Lunar Terrain Vehicle. Launch is scheduled for no earlier than March 2030.[11][13] The mission will also be the first to use Blue Origin's Blue Moon lander to take astronauts to the Moon's surface.

Artemis 6 (2031) is planned to be the fourth crewed lunar landing, which will integrate the Crew and Science Airlock with the Gateway Space Station.[14] Launch is scheduled for no earlier than March 2031.[13]

As of 2024, the Airlock module is under construction.[15]

Support missions

Support missions include robotic landers, delivery of Gateway modules, Gateway logistics, delivery of the HLS, and delivery of elements of the Moon base. Most of these missions are executed under NASA contracts to commercial providers.

Under the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program, several robotic landers will deliver scientific instruments and robotic rovers to the lunar surface after Artemis 1. Additional CLPS missions are planned throughout the Artemis program to deliver payloads to the Moon base. These include habitat modules and rovers in support of crewed missions.

A Human Landing System (HLS) is a spacecraft that can convey crew members from NRHO to the lunar surface, support them on the surface, and return them to NRHO. Each crewed landing needs one HLS, although some or all of the spacecraft may be reusable. Each HLS must be launched from Earth and delivered to NRHO in one or more launches. The initial commercial contract was awarded to SpaceX for two Starship HLS missions, one uncrewed and one crewed as part of Artemis 3. These two missions each require one HLS launch and multiple fueling launches, all on SpaceX Starship launchers. NASA later exercised an option under the initial contract to commission an upgraded Starship HLS for Artemis 4 and a separate contract to Blue Origin to develop a third crewed lunar lander, which will make its first crewed flight as part of the Artemis 5 mission.

The first two Gateway modules (PPE and HALO) will be delivered to NRHO in a single launch using a Falcon Heavy launcher. Originally planned to be available prior to Artemis 3, as of 2021 it is planned for availability before Artemis 4.

The Gateway will be resupplied and supported by launches of Dragon XL spacecraft launched by Falcon Heavy. Each Dragon XL will remain attached to Gateway for up to six months. The Dragon XLs will not return to Earth, but will be disposed of, probably by deliberate crashes on the lunar surface.

History

Artist's rendering of the lunar module (left) and space capsule of the Constellation program
Artist's impression of an SLS launch

Early history

The Artemis program incorporates several major components of previously cancelled NASA programs and missions, including the Constellation program and the Asteroid Redirect Mission. Originally legislated by the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Constellation included the development of Ares I, Ares V, and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. The program ran from the early 2000s until 2010.[16]

In May 2009, President Barack Obama established the Augustine Committee to take into account several objectives including support for the International Space Station, development of missions beyond low Earth orbit (including the Moon, Mars, and near-Earth objects), and use of the commercial space industry within defined budget limits.[17] The committee concluded that the Constellation program was massively underfunded and that a 2020 Moon landing was impossible. Constellation was subsequently put on hold.[18]

On 15 April 2010, President Obama spoke at the Kennedy Space Center, announcing the administration's plans for NASA and cancelling the non-Orion elements of Constellation on the premise that the program had become nonviable.[19] He instead proposed US$6 billion in additional funding and called for development of a new heavy-lift rocket program to be ready for construction by 2015 with crewed missions to Mars orbit by the mid-2030s.[20]

On 11 October 2010, President Obama signed into law the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, which included requirements for the immediate development of the Space Launch System as a follow-on launch vehicle to the Space Shuttle, and continued development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle to be capable of supporting missions beyond low Earth orbit starting in 2016, while making use of the workforce, assets, and capabilities of the Space Shuttle program, Constellation program, and other NASA programs. The law also invested in space technologies and robotics capabilities tied to the overall space exploration framework, ensured continued support for Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, Commercial Resupply Services, and expanded the Commercial Crew Development program.[21]

On 30 June 2017, President Donald Trump signed an executive order to re-establish the National Space Council, chaired by Vice-President Mike Pence. The Trump administration's first budget request kept Obama-era human spaceflight programs in place: Commercial Resupply Services, Commercial Crew Development, the Space Launch System, and the Orion spacecraft for deep space missions, while reducing Earth science research and calling for the elimination of NASA's education office.[22]

Redefinition and naming as Artemis

On 11 December 2017, President Trump signed Space Policy Directive 1, a change in national space policy that provides for a U.S.-led, integrated program with private sector partners for a human return to the Moon, followed by missions to Mars and beyond. The policy calls for the NASA administrator to "lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the Solar System and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities". The effort intends to more effectively organize government, private industry, and international efforts toward returning humans to the Moon and laying the foundation of eventual human exploration of Mars.[2]

Space Policy Directive 1 authorized the lunar-focused campaign. The campaign, later named Artemis, draws upon legacy US spacecraft programs, including the Orion space capsule, the Lunar Gateway space station, and Commercial Lunar Payload Services, and creates entirely new programs such as the Human Landing System. The in-development Space Launch System is expected to serve as the primary launch vehicle for Orion, while commercial launch vehicles will launch various other elements of the program.[23]

On 26 March 2019, Vice President Mike Pence announced that NASA's Moon landing goal would be accelerated by four years with a planned landing in 2024.[24] On 14 May 2019, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine announced that the new program would be named Artemis, after the goddess of the Moon in Greek mythology who is the twin sister of Apollo.[23][25] Despite the immediate new goals, Mars missions by the 2030s were still intended as of May 2019.[2]

In mid-2019, NASA requested US$1.6 billion in additional funding for Artemis for fiscal year 2020,[26] while the Senate Appropriations Committee requested from NASA a five-year budget profile[27] which is needed for evaluation and approval by Congress.[28][29]

In February 2020, the White House requested a funding increase of 12% to cover the Artemis program as part of its fiscal year 2021 budget. The total budget would have been US$25.2 billion per year with US$3.7 billion dedicated toward a Human Landing System. NASA Chief Financial Officer Jeff DeWit said he thought the agency has "a very good shot" to get this budget through Congress despite Democratic concerns around the program.[30] However, in July 2020 the House Appropriations Committee rejected the White House's requested funding increase.[31] The bill proposed in the House dedicated only US$700 million toward the Human Landing System, 81% (US$3 billion) short of the requested amount.[32]

In April 2020, NASA awarded funding to Blue Origin, Dynetics, and SpaceX for 10-month-long preliminary design studies for the HLS.[33][34][35]

Throughout February 2021, Acting Administrator of NASA Steve Jurczyk reiterated those budget concerns when asked about the project's schedule,[36][37] clarifying that "The 2024 lunar landing goal may no longer be a realistic target [...]".[38]

On 4 February 2021, the Biden administration endorsed the Artemis program.[39] More specifically, White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki expressed the Biden administration's "support [for] this effort and endeavor".[40][41][42]

On 16 April 2021, NASA contracted SpaceX to develop, manufacture, and fly two lunar landing flights with the Starship HLS lunar lander.[43] Blue Origin and Dynetics protested the award to the Government Accountability Office (GAO) on 26 April.[44][45] After the GAO rejected the protests,[46] Blue Origin sued NASA over the award,[47][48] and NASA agreed to stop work on the contract until 1 November 2021 as the lawsuit proceeded. The judge dismissed the suit on 4 November 2021 and NASA resumed work with SpaceX.[49]

On 25 September 2021, NASA released its first digital, interactive graphic novel in celebration of National Comic Book Day. "First Woman: NASA's Promise for Humanity" is the fictional story of Callie Rodriguez, the first woman to explore the Moon.[50]

On 15 November 2021, an audit of NASA's Office of Inspector General estimated the true cost of the Artemis program at about $93 billion until 2025.[1]

In addition to the initial SpaceX contract, NASA awarded two rounds of separate contracts in May 2019[51] and September 2021,[52] on aspects of the HLS to encourage alternative designs, separately from the initial HLS development effort. It announced in March 2022 that it was developing new sustainability rules and pursuing both a Starship HLS upgrade (an option under the initial SpaceX contract) and new competing alternative designs. These came after criticism from members of Congress over lack of redundancy and competition, and led NASA to ask for additional support.[53][54]

Artemis 1 (2022)

Artemis 1 was originally scheduled for late 2016, and as delays accrued, eventually for late 2021, but the launch date was then pushed back to 29 August 2022.[55] Engine sensor problems caused a delay on that date; the next launch window was September 3.[56] A fuel supply line leak in a quick disconnect arm on a ground tail service mast caused a further delay to a period between 23 September and 4 October.[57][58][59] While the leak was partially repaired to a satisfactory condition, weather delays due to Hurricane Ian forced NASA managers to begin preparing for the stack's rollback to the Vehicle Assembly Building and call off the September–early October launch window.[60][61][62]

In October 2022, NASA launch managers decided on a new launch date of 14 November, with backup options for 16 November and 19 November.[63] In early November, NASA launch managers ruled out the 14 November option and made preparations to secure the SLS at the pad for Hurricane Nicole, after which launch was planned for 16 November.[64][4]

On 16 November at 01:47:44 EST (06:47:44 UTC), Artemis 1 successfully launched from the Kennedy Space Center.[65]

Artemis 1 was completed at 09:40 PST (17:40 UTC) on 11 December, when the Orion spacecraft splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, west of Baja California, after a record-breaking mission, which saw Artemis travel more than 1.4 million miles on a path around the Moon before returning safely to Earth. The splashdown occurred 50 years to the day since NASA's Apollo 17 Moon landing, the last human crewed mission to touch down on the lunar surface.[66]

Artemis 2 (2025)

As of May 2024, Artemis 2 is scheduled to launch in September 2025 as a crewed lunar flyby. The European Service Module for the mission was completed and handed over to NASA in 2023.[67] Testing is underway on the Orion module for Artemis 2. In April 2024, Lockheed was on track to hand over the Orion module by September.[68][69][70] It was announced that the Orion module completed electromagnetic testing successfully in April 2024 after which the module will undergo further work in preparation for additional testing in Summer 2024.[71] An OIG report released on May 1, 2024 reported the mission was still on track, provided corrective actions on the Orion heat shield were made.[72] The Artemis 2 crew planned to conduct a series of trainings and simulations prior to launch, the first of which occurred in May 2024.[73]

Crew

Christina Koch
Christina Koch is planned to be the first woman to fly to the Moon.
Prime crew
Position Astronaut
Commander United States Reid Wiseman, NASA
Second spaceflight
Pilot United States Victor Glover, NASA
Second spaceflight
Payload Specialist United States Christina Koch, NASA
Second spaceflight
Mission Specialist Canada Jeremy Hansen, CSA
First spaceflight

Artemis 2 is to be crewed by four astronauts: Commander Reid Wiseman, Pilot Victor J. Glover, Payload Specialist Christina Koch, and Mission Specialist Jeremy Hansen.[74] Jenni Sidey-Gibbons is Hansen's backup; she will join the mission if Hansen is unable to.[75][76]

Glover, Koch, and Hansen are to be the first person of color, woman, and non-American to go beyond low Earth orbit respectively.[74] Hansen and Sidey-Gibbons are Canadian and have been assigned by the Canadian Space Agency;[74] a 2020 treaty between the United States and Canada led to their involvement.[77]

Artemis 3 (2026)

Artemis 3 is expected to launch in September 2026 as the first crewed landing on the Moon since Apollo 17. In February 2024, NASA completed full qualification testing of the docking systems on Starship HLS.[78] Also in February, the bulk of the manufacturing for the core stage of the SLS to be used in the mission was completed.[79] In April 2024, NASA announced successful completion of Starship’s first internal propellant transfer demonstration. The Starship’s tanker variant ability to act as an orbital propellant depot to Starship HLS is a key capability necessary to complete the Artemis 3 mission. A ship-to-ship propellant transfer demonstration to further prove out the capability is expected in 2025.[80] The European Service Module for the mission was reported on track to be handed over to NASA in summer 2024.[81]

Instruments and Payloads

In March 2024, NASA announced the scientific instruments to be included on the mission were a compact, autonomous seismometer suite called the Lunar Environment Monitoring Station, or LEMS. LEMS will characterize the regional structure of the moon's crust and mantle to inform the development of lunar formation and evolution models. Another instrument is Lunar Effects on Agricultural Flora, a.k.a. LEAF, which will investigate the impact of the lunar surface environment on space crops. The third instrument is the Lunar Dielectric Analyzer, or LDA, an internationally contributed payload that will measure the regolith's ability to propagate an electric field.[82]

Artemis 4 (2028)

Artemis 4 is expected to launch in September 2028. Prior to the launch of the mission, a Falcon Heavy is planned to launch the first two Lunar Gateway elements: the Power and Propulsion Element and Habitation and Logistics Outpost, now scheduled for late 2025. Artemis 4 will then be responsible for launching with a crew with the International Habitation Module (I-Hab) and adding the module to the Gateway. SLS Block 1B manufacture began in March 2024.[83] The I-Hab module construction is underway as of April 2024.[84] In May 2024, it was reported NASA made significant progress towards completion of the launch mount that will be compatible with the Block 1B launch vehicle.[85]

NASA has highlighted five key points for the mission (in chronological order):

  • The crewed Orion spacecraft and Lunar I-Hab Gateway element will launch as a co-manifested payload on an SLS Block 1B rocket to lunar orbit.
  • Orion will deliver Lunar I-Hab to Gateway, where it will dock to HALO.
  • A Human Landing System spacecraft will dock to Gateway.
  • Artemis 4 crew members will use the Human Landing System to descend to and later ascend from the lunar surface.
  • Artemis 4 crew will return to Earth on Orion.[86]

Artemis 5 (2030)

Artemis 5 is expected to launch in March 2030. The mission will launch four astronauts on a Space Launch System rocket and an Orion spacecraft to the Lunar Gateway and will be the third lunar landing of the Artemis program. In addition, Artemis 5 will deliver two new elements to the Gateway Space Station.[87] After docking to the Gateway, two astronauts will board the Blue Moon lunar lander and fly it to the Lunar south pole to land near the Lunar Terrain Vehicle. This will be the first lunar landing since Apollo 17 to use an unpressurized lunar rover.[88]

NASA has highlighted five key points for the mission (in chronological order):

  • The crewed Orion spacecraft and the Lunar View element will launch as a co-manifested payload on an SLS Block 1B rocket to lunar orbit.
  • Orion will deliver Lunar View to Gateway, where it will dock to HALO.
  • A Human Landing System spacecraft will dock to Gateway.
  • Artemis 5 crew members will use the Human Landing System to descend to and later ascend from the lunar surface.
  • Artemis 5 crew will return to Earth on Orion.[86]

Artemis 6 (2031)

Artemis 6 is expected to launch in March 2031.[89] According to NASA, the primary objectives of this mission would be to integrate the Crew and Science Airlock with Gateway and complete the fourth crewed lunar surface expedition of the Artemis missions.[86] As of 2024, the Airlock module is under construction by Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre .[15]

NASA has highlighted five key points for the mission (in chronological order):

  • The crewed Orion spacecraft and Gateway’s Crew and Science Airlock will launch as a co-manifested payload on an SLS Block 1B rocket to lunar orbit.
  • Orion will deliver the Crew and Science Airlock to Gateway, where it will dock to Lunar I-Hab.
  • A Human Landing System spacecraft will dock to Gateway.
  • Artemis 6 crew members will use the Human Landing System to descend to and later ascend from the lunar surface.
  • Artemis 6 crew will return to Earth on Orion.[86]

Supporting programs

Implementation of the Artemis program will require additional programs, projects, and commercial launchers to support the construction of the Lunar Gateway, launch resupply missions to the station, and deploy numerous robotic spacecraft and instruments to the lunar surface.[90] Several precursor robotic missions are being coordinated through the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program, which is dedicated to scouting and characterization of lunar resources as well as testing principles for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU).[90][91]

Models of the first three commercial robotic landers selected for CLPS. From left: Peregrine by Astrobotic Technology, Nova-C by Intuitive Machines, and Z-01 by OrbitBeyond.

Commercial Lunar Payload Services

In March 2018, NASA established the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program with the aim of sending small robotic landers and rovers mostly to the lunar south pole region as a precursor to and in support of crewed missions.[91][92][93] The main goals include scouting of lunar resources, ISRU feasibility testing, and lunar science.[94] NASA is awarding commercial providers indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contracts to develop and fly lunar landers with scientific payloads.[95] The first phase considered proposals capable of delivering at least 10 kg (22 lb) of payload by the end of 2021.[95] Proposals for mid-sized landers capable of delivering between 500 kg (1,100 lb) and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) of cargo were planned to also be considered for launch beyond 2021.[96]

In November 2018, NASA announced the first nine companies that were qualified to bid on the CLPS transportation service contracts (see list below).[97] On 31 May 2019, three of those were awarded lander contracts: Astrobotic Technology, Intuitive Machines, and OrbitBeyond.[98] On 29 July 2019, NASA announced that it had granted OrbitBeyond's request to be released from obligations under the contract citing "internal corporate challenges".[99]

The first twelve payloads and experiments from NASA centers were announced on 21 February 2019.[100] On 1 July 2019, NASA announced the selection of twelve additional payloads, provided by universities and industry. Seven of these are scientific investigations while five are technology demonstrations.[101]

The Lunar Surface Instrument and Technology Payloads (LSITP) program was soliciting payloads in 2019 that do not require significant additional development. They will include technology demonstrators to advance lunar science or the commercial development of the Moon.[102][103]

In November 2019, NASA added five contractors to the group of companies who are eligible to bid to send large payloads to the surface of the Moon under the CLPS program: Blue Origin, Ceres Robotics, Sierra Nevada Corporation, SpaceX, and Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems.[104][105]

In April 2020, NASA selected Masten Space Systems for a follow-on CLPS delivery of cargo to the Moon in 2022.[106][107] On 23 June 2021, Masten Space Systems announced it was delayed until November 2023. Dave Masten, the founder and chief technology officer, blamed the delay on the COVID pandemic and industry-wide supply chain issues.[108]

In February 2021, NASA selected Firefly Aerospace for a CLPS launch to Mare Crisium in mid-2023.[109][110]

VIPER

NASA's VIPER rover

The VIPER (Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover) is a lunar rover by NASA planned to be delivered to the surface of the Moon in November 2024.[111] The rover will be tasked with prospecting for lunar resources in permanently shadowed areas in the lunar south pole region, especially by mapping the distribution and concentration of water ice. The mission builds on a previous NASA rover concept called Resource Prospector, which was cancelled in 2018.[112]

The VIPER rover is part of the Lunar Discovery and Exploration Program managed by the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters, and it is meant to support the crewed Artemis program.[113] NASA's Ames Research Center is managing the rover project. The hardware for the rover is being designed by the Johnson Space Center, while the instruments are provided by Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, and Honeybee Robotics.[113] As of March 2021, the estimated cost of the mission is US$433.5 million.[114]

The VIPER rover will operate near the lunar south pole at Nobile Crater. VIPER is planned to travel several kilometers, collecting data on different kinds of soil environments affected by light and temperature—those in complete darkness, occasional light, and in constant sunlight. Once it enters a permanently shadowed location, it will operate on battery power alone and will not be able to recharge them until it drives to a sunlit area. Its total operation time will be approximately 100 Earth days.

Both the launcher and the lander to be used will be competitively provided through the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) contractors, with Astrobotic delivering the Griffin lander and SpaceX providing the Falcon Heavy launch vehicle.[115]

Commercial contractors qualified to bid for CLPS NASA-funded design work
Qualification date Company Proposed services Contract award
Date amount
US$ millions
29 November
2018
Astrobotic Technology Peregrine lander 31 May 2019 79.5[98]
Deep Space Systems Rover; design and development services [97]
Draper Laboratory Series 2 lander 21 July 2022 73[116]
Firefly Aerospace Blue Ghost lander 4 February 2021 93.3[109]
Intuitive Machines Nova-C lander 31 May 2019 77[98]
Lockheed Martin Space McCandless Lunar Lander [97]
Masten Space Systems XL-1 lander 8 April 2020 75.9[106][97]
Moon Express MX-1, MX-2, MX-5, MX-9 landers; sample return. [97]
OrbitBeyond Z-01 and Z-02 landers 31 May 2019 97 [98][a]
18 November
2019
Blue Origin Blue Moon lander [105]
Ceres Robotics [105]
Sierra Nevada Corporation [105]
SpaceX Starship cargo lander [105]
Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems [105]
  1. ^ On 29 Jul 2019, NASA accepted a request for contract termination from OrbitBeyond given its identification of internal corporate challenges[117]

International contractors

Name Country Location Program element Services performed
Ispace  Japan Tokyo Lunar in situ resource utilization Hakuto-R lunar regolith transfer[118]
Ispace Europe  Luxembourg Luxembourg City Lunar in situ resource utilization Lunar regolith transfer[119]
Toyota  Japan Toyota City Crewed lunar rover Lunar Cruiser[120]
ArianeGroup  France Gironde Orion Propulsion system components[121]
ESAB  Sweden Laxå Municipality Space Launch System Fuel tank structures[122]
MT Aerospace  Germany Augsburg Space Launch System Cryogenic core stage dome core panels[123]
Schaeffler Aerospace Germany GmbH & Co. KG  Germany Schweinfurt Space Launch System Cronidur 30 in SLS propulsion systems, components for Orion spacecraft[124]
Magna Steyr  Austria Graz Space Launch System Pressurization lines for the SLS core stage[125]
Airbus  Germany Bremen Orion Orion European Service Module[126]
7 Sisters Consortium (includes Fleet Space Technologies,[127] OZ Minerals, University of Adelaide,[128] University of New South Wales, and Unearthed)  Australia Adelaide, Perth, Sydney Lunar exploration support Companion program to Artemis to provide nanosatellite solutions and exploration support for crewed Artemis missions.[129]
MDA  Canada Brampton, Ontario Lunar Gateway Canadarm 3[130]

Artemis Accords

On 5 May 2020, Reuters reported that the Trump administration was drafting a new international agreement outlining the laws for mining on the Moon.[131] NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine officially announced the Artemis Accords on 15 May 2020. It consists of a series of bilateral agreements between the governments of participating nations in the Artemis program "grounded in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967".[132][133] The Artemis Accords have been criticized by some American researchers as "a concerted, strategic effort to redirect international space cooperation in favor of short-term U.S. commercial interests".[134]

Exploration Ground Systems (EGS)

The Exploration Ground Systems (EGS) Program is one of three NASA programs based at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. EGS was established to develop and operate the systems and facilities necessary to process and launch rockets and spacecraft during assembly, transport, and launch.[135] EGS is preparing the infrastructure to support NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and its payloads, such as the Orion spacecraft for Artemis 1.[136][137]

Gateway Logistics Services

The Lunar Gateway is a space station to be constructed in lunar orbit, and the Gateway Logistics Services program will provide cargo and other supplies to the station, even when crews are not present.[138] As of 2022, only SpaceX's supply vehicle, known as Dragon XL, is planned to supply the Gateway. Dragon XL is a version of the Dragon spacecraft, to be launched by the Falcon Heavy. Unlike Dragon 2 and its predecessor, it is intended to be an expendable spacecraft.

Supporting Earth-launch vehicles

As of the early mission concepts outlined by NASA in May 2020 and refined by the HLS contract award in July 2021, the primary Earth-launch vehicles planned to support the Artemis program will include the NASA Space Launch System for the Orion vehicle, the Falcon Heavy for various components of the Lunar Gateway,[139] and the Starship HLS configuration for the eventual delivery of the HLS vehicle. Other standard SpaceX Starships may be used later to meet other and yet to be determined crew and/or cargo handling mission needs.[140] Additional launch vehicles will also be employed later for CLPS cargo services. The European Ariane 6 has been proposed to be part of the program in July 2019.[141]

The Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) module and the Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) of the Gateway, which were previously planned for the SLS Block 1B,[142] will now fly together on a Falcon Heavy in November 2024.[143][144] The Gateway will be supported and resupplied by approximately 28 commercial cargo missions launched by undetermined commercial launch vehicles.[145] The Gateway Logistics Services (GLS) will be in charge of resupply missions.[145] GLS has also contracted for the construction of a resupply vehicle, Dragon XL, capable of remaining docked to the Gateway for one year of operations, providing and generating its own power while docked, and capable of autonomous disposal at the end of its mission.[145][146][147]

In May 2019, the plan was for components of a crewed lunar lander to be deployed to the Gateway on commercial launchers before the arrival of the first crewed mission, Artemis 3.[148] An alternative approach where the HLS and Orion dock together directly was discussed.[149][150]

As late as mid-2019, NASA considered use of Delta IV Heavy and Falcon Heavy to launch a crewed Orion mission given SLS delays.[151] Given the complexity of conversion to a different vehicle, the agency ultimately decided to use only the SLS to launch astronauts.[8]

Launch vehicles
Launch
vehicle
Missions Payload Estimated cost
per launch
First launch
LEO TLI
SLS Block 1 Crew transportation 95 t 27 t US$2 billion 2022[4]
SLS Block 1B Crew transportation,
I-HAB Gateway Module
105 t 42 t US$2 billion In development (2028)
SLS Block 2 Crew transportation,
Heavy payloads
130 t 45 t US$2 billion In development (after 2029)
Falcon Heavy Dragon XL launches,
two Gateway modules,
VIPER
63.8 t US$150 million
(expendable)[152]
6 February 2018
Vulcan Centaur CLPS missions 27.2 t 12.1 t US$82–200 million 8 January 2024
Falcon 9 CLPS missions 22.8 t US$62 million[153] 2010
Electron CAPSTONE 0.3 t US$7.5 million[154][155] 2017
Starship Starship HLS,
heavy CLPS payloads
150 t 150 t[a] US$2 million (goal)[156][b] 20 April 2023
Ariane 6 Argonaut 21.6 t €115 million[157][158] Summer 2024[159]
  1. ^ requires refueling in LEO
  2. ^ Per launch. May require refueling launches

Space Launch System

Diagram of four versions of the Space Launch System rocket
The planned evolution of the Space Launch System, the primary launch vehicle for Orion

The Space Launch System (SLS) is a United States super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle, which has been under development since its announcement in 2011. The SLS is the main Earth-launch vehicle of the Artemis lunar program, as of March 2021. NASA is required by the U.S. Congress to use SLS Block 1, which will be powerful enough to lift a payload of 95 t (209,000 lb) to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will launch Artemis 1, 2, and 3.[160][161][162] Starting in 2028, Block 1B is intended to debut the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) and launch the notional Artemis 4–7.[163][164]

Starting in 2029, Block 2 is planned to replace the initial Shuttle-derived boosters with advanced boosters and would have a LEO capability of more than 130 t (130 long tons; 140 short tons), again as required by Congress.[165] Block 2 is intended to enable crewed launches to Mars.[6] The SLS will launch the Orion spacecraft and use the ground operations capabilities and launch facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

The SLS for Artemis 1 on its mobile launcher, getting ready for a wet dress rehearsal ahead of launch

In March 2019, the Trump administration released its Fiscal Year 2020 Budget Request for NASA. This budget did not initially include any money for the Block 1B and Block 2 variants of SLS, but later a request for a budget increase of $1.6 billion towards SLS, Orion, and crewed landers was made. Block 1B is now intended to debut on Artemis 4 and will be used mainly for co-manifested crew transfers and logistics rather than constructing the Gateway as initially planned. An uncrewed Block 1B was planned to launch the Lunar Surface Asset in 2028, the first lunar outpost of the Artemis program, but now that launch has been moved to a commercial launcher.[166] Block 2 development will most likely start in the late 2020s after NASA is regularly visiting the lunar surface and shifts focus towards Mars.[167]

In October 2019, NASA authorized Boeing to purchase materials in bulk for more SLS rockets ahead of the announcement of a new contract. The contract was expected to support up to ten core stages and eight Exploration Upper Stages for the SLS 1B to transfer heavy payloads of up to 40 metric tons on a lunar trajectory.[168]

SpaceX Starship

The SpaceX Starship system is a fully-reusable super heavy-lift Earth-launch system which is under development. It consists of a first-stage booster named Super-Heavy and a second-stage space vehicle which is generally named Starship and which will have several variants. A Starship HLS mission will use three variants: a tanker, a propellant depot, and the Starship HLS itself which will be designed only for lunar landings and takeoffs, and not for Earth landings. Some variants will be able to return to Earth for reuse.

The second-stage Starships are fully self-contained spacecraft, complete with their own propulsion systems. The combined Starship system using standard Starship variants for its second-stage is planned to launch crews and cargo, which may then be used to support the various developmental needs of the Artemis program, and also to support the needs of other NASA and SpaceX programs.

The SpaceX Starship is also qualified to be bid for Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) launches, and in 2021 was the winning NASA bid for a crewed lunar landing.[169][170][171]

Falcon Heavy

The SpaceX Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launcher. It will be used to launch the first two Gateway modules into NRHO.[172] It will also be used to launch the Dragon XL spacecraft on supply missions to Gateway,[173] and it is qualified to be bid for other launches under the CLPS program. It was selected under CLPS to launch the VIPER mission.

CLPS launchers

Under the CLPS (Commercial Lunar Payload Service) program, qualified CLPS vendors can use any launcher that meets their mission requirements.

Space vehicles

Orion

NASA's Orion spacecraft undergoing final tests

Orion is a class of partially reusable spacecraft to be used in the Artemis program. The spacecraft consists of a Crew Module (CM) space capsule designed by Lockheed Martin and the European Service Module (ESM) manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space. Capable of supporting a crew of six beyond low Earth orbit, Orion is equipped with solar panels, an automated docking system, and glass cockpit interfaces modeled after those used in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. It has a single AJ10 engine for primary propulsion, and others including reaction control system engines. Although designed to be compatible with other launch vehicles, Orion is primarily intended to launch atop a Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, with a tower launch escape system.

Orion was originally conceived by Lockheed Martin as a proposal for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to be used in NASA's Constellation program. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program in 2010, Orion was heavily redesigned for use in NASA's Journey to Mars initiative; later named Moon to Mars. The SLS replaced the Ares I as Orion's primary launch vehicle, and the service module was replaced with a design based on the European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle. A development version of Orion's CM was launched in 2014 during Exploration Flight Test-1, while at least four test articles were produced. By 2022, three flight-worthy Orion crew modules have been built, with an additional one ordered, for use in the Artemis program; the first of these was due to be launched on 30 November 2020, however Artemis 1 did not launch until 16 November 2022.

A conceptual advanced Gateway depicting what Gateway could look like in the late 2020s.

Dragon XL

SpaceX Dragon XL

On 27 March 2020, SpaceX revealed the Dragon XL resupply spacecraft to carry pressurized and unpressurized cargo, experiments and other supplies to NASA's planned Lunar Gateway under a Gateway Logistics Services (GLS) contract.[174][175] The equipment delivered by Dragon XL missions could include sample collection materials, spacesuits and other items astronauts may need on the Gateway and on the surface of the Moon, according to NASA. It will launch on SpaceX Falcon Heavy rockets from LC-39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.[176]

The Dragon XL will stay at the Gateway for 6 to 12 months at a time, when research payloads inside and outside the cargo vessel could be operated remotely, even when crews are not present.[177] Its payload capacity is expected to be more than 5,000 kilograms (11,000 lb) to lunar orbit.[178] There is no requirement for a return to Earth. At the end of the mission the Dragon XL must be able to undock and dispose of the same mass it can bring to the Gateway, by moving the spacecraft to a heliocentric orbit.[179]

Human Landing System (HLS)

The Human Landing System (HLS) is a critical component of the Artemis mission. This system transports crew from lunar orbit (the Gateway or an Orion spacecraft) to the lunar surface, acts as a lunar habitat, and then transports the crew back to lunar orbit. In 2021 SpaceX's Starship HLS program was awarded the winning NASA bid for the production of a crewed lunar landing vehicle.[169] In May 2023, Blue Origin was selected as the second provider for lunar lander services.[180][181]

Early developmental history of the HLS vehicle

Bidding for NASA's HLS lunar landing vehicle began in 2019. At that time, NASA elected to have the HLS designed and developed by commercial vendors. Eleven competing contracts were initially awarded in May 2019. In April 2020, NASA awarded three competing design contracts, and in April 2021, NASA selected the Starship HLS to proceed to development and production.

Separate from its early design and development program for its first HLS spacecraft, NASA retains multiple smaller contracts to study various elements of alternative HLS designs.

Starship HLS

The Starship Human Landing System (Starship HLS) was the winner selected by NASA for potential use for long-duration crewed lunar landings as part of NASA's Artemis program.[43][182]

Starship HLS is a variant of SpaceX's Starship spacecraft optimized to operate on and around the Moon. In contrast to the Starship spacecraft from which it derives, Starship HLS will never re-enter an atmosphere, so it does not have a heat shield or flight control surfaces. In contrast to other proposed HLS designs that used multiple stages, the entire spacecraft will land on the Moon and will then launch from the Moon. Like other Starship variants, Starship HLS has Raptor engines mounted at the tail as its primary propulsion system. However, when it is within "tens of meters" of the lunar surface during descent and ascent, it will use high-thrust methane/oxygen RCS thrusters located mid-body instead of the Raptors to avoid raising dust via plume impingement. A solar array located on the nose below the docking port provides electrical power. Elon Musk stated that Starship HLS would be able to deliver "potentially up to 200 tons" to the lunar surface.

Starship HLS would be launched to Earth orbit using the SpaceX Super Heavy booster, and would use a series of tanker spacecraft to refuel the Starship HLS vehicle in Earth orbit for lunar transit and lunar landing operations. Starship HLS would then boost itself to lunar orbit for rendezvous with Orion. In the mission concept, a NASA Orion spacecraft would carry a NASA crew to the lander, where they would depart and descend to the surface of the Moon. After lunar surface operations, Starship HLS would lift off from the lunar surface acting as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle and return the crew to Orion.

Blue Origin HLS

On 19 May 2023, NASA announced an additional contract to Blue Origin to develop a second crewed lunar lander, which will make its first crewed flight as part of the Artemis 5 mission. Blue Moon is smaller than the SpaceX HLS lander, having only 20 tons of payload capacity. The lander is fueled with a combination of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants.[183]

Lunar Gateway

NASA's Gateway is an in-development mini-space station in lunar orbit intended to serve as a solar-powered communication hub, science laboratory, short-term habitation module, and holding area for rovers and other robots.[184] While the project is led by NASA, the Gateway is meant to be developed, serviced, and used in collaboration with commercial and international partners: Canada (Canadian Space Agency) (CSA), Europe (European Space Agency) (ESA), and Japan (JAXA).

Phase 1 early Gateway with Power and Propulsion Element (left), Habitation and Logistics Outpost (center foreground), and cargo spacecraft (center background) depicted

The Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) started development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the now canceled Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The original concept was a robotic, high performance solar electric spacecraft that would retrieve a multi-ton boulder from an asteroid and bring it to lunar orbit for study.[185] When ARM was canceled, the solar electric propulsion was repurposed for the Gateway.[186][187] The PPE will allow access to the entire lunar surface and act as a space tug for visiting craft.[188] It will also serve as the command and communications center of the Gateway.[189][190] The PPE is intended to have a mass of 8–9 tonnes and the capability to generate 50 kW[191] of solar electric power for its ion thrusters, which can be supplemented by chemical propulsion.[192]

The Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO),[193][194] also called the Minimal Habitation Module (MHM) and formerly known as the Utilization Module,[195] will be built by Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems (NGIS).[196][197] A single Falcon Heavy equipped with an extended fairing[198] will launch the PPE together with the HALO in November 2024.[143] The HALO is based on a Cygnus Cargo resupply module[196] to the outside of which radial docking ports, body mounted radiators (BMRs), batteries and communications antennae will be added. The HALO will be a scaled-down habitation module,[199] yet, it will feature a functional pressurized volume providing sufficient command, control, and data handling capabilities, energy storage and power distribution, thermal control, communications and tracking capabilities, two axial and up to two radial docking ports, stowage volume, environmental control and life support systems to augment the Orion spacecraft and support a crew of four for at least 30 days.[197]

Gateway as of October 2020 which includes European, Japanese, and Russian modules

In March 2020, Doug Loverro, NASA's associate administrator for human exploration and operations at that time, removed the Gateway construction from the 2024 critical path to provide funding for the HLS. He stated that the PPE could face delays and that moving it to 2026 would allow for a more refined vehicle. It is also notable that the international partners on the Gateway would not have their modules ready until 2026. It was made a requirement that all Human Landing System proposals would be capable of free flight without the Gateway.[200]

On 30 April 2020, a key to NASA's vision for a "sustainable" crew presence on or near the Moon, the Gateway station, was announced to be optional, rather than required, in mission planning. NASA officials originally hoped the Gateway would be in position near the Moon in time for the Artemis 3 mission in 2024, allowing elements of the lunar lander to be assembled, or aggregated, at the Gateway before the arrival of astronauts on an Orion crew capsule. Jim Bridenstine told Spaceflight Now, the Artemis 3 mission will no longer go through the Gateway, but NASA is not backing away from the program.[150]

In late October 2020, NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) finalized an agreement to collaborate in the Gateway program. ESA will provide a habitat module in partnership with JAXA (I-HAB) and a refueling module (ESPRIT). In return, Europe will have three flight opportunities to launch crew aboard the Orion crew capsule, for which they will provide the service module.[201][202]

Astronauts

On 10 January 2020, NASA's 22nd astronaut group, nicknamed the "Turtles", graduated and were assigned to the Artemis program. The group includes two Canadian Space Agency (CSA) astronauts. The group earned their nickname from the prior astronaut group, "The 8-Balls", as is a tradition dating back to "The Mercury Seven" in 1962 which subsequently provided the "Next Nine" with their nickname. They were given this name, for the most part, because of Hurricane Harvey. Some of the astronauts will fly on the Artemis missions to the Moon and may be part of the first crew to fly to Mars.[203]

Artemis team

On 9 December 2020, Vice President Mike Pence announced the first group of 18 astronauts (all American, including 9 male and 9 female from different backgrounds), the 1st Artemis team, who could be selected as astronauts of early missions of the Artemis program:[204]

Chief Astronaut Reid Wiseman said in August 2022, however, that all 42 active members of the NASA Astronaut Corps, and the ten more training as NASA Astronaut Group 23, are eligible for Artemis 2 and later flights.[205]

Planned surface operations

An artist's rendition of an Artemis astronaut wearing the xEMU spacesuit and xPLS life support backpack during an EVA on the Moon

The Artemis Base Camp will support missions of up to two months and will be used to study technologies to use on future Moon or Mars bases, and then future stationary modules may be used regularly for decades to come through both Government and commercial programs. Most probably it will be a site that has already been visited by prior robotic missions. It will consist of three main modules:

  1. The Surface Habitat (SH) modules, which is the initial dwelling structure and a surface home base for the first residents of the moon.
  2. The Lunar Terrain Vehicles (LTV), which is an unpressurized rover cart for transporting suited astronauts and cargo around in the vicinity of the Base.
  3. The Pressurized Rovers (PR), a pressurized vehicle complete with small backup habitation facilities, thus enabling multi-day and longer-range explorations tens of kilometers away from the Base.[206]

Transportation on Moon

Landing zone

In 2022, NASA has identified 13 spaceport candidate regions near the lunar South Pole for initial landing and inspection missions.[207]

Ground transportation development

NASA's baseline Lunar Terrain Vehicle

In February 2020, NASA released two requests for information regarding both a crewed and uncrewed unpressurized surface rover. The latter, Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) would be prepositioned by a CLPS vehicle before the Artemis 3 mission. It would be used to transport crews around the exploration site and serve a similar function to the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle. In July 2020, NASA established a program office for the rover at the Johnson Space Center in Houston.[208]

NASA has specified its need for a Lunar Terrain Vehicle (LTV) that has a cargo capacity of 800 kg, traversal distances of up to 20 km without battery recharging, continuous operations for 8 hours within a 24-hour period, the ability to survive the lunar night, and the ability to traverse grades as steep as ±20 degrees.[206]

On 3 April 2024, NASA announced that Intuitive Machines, Lunar Outpost and Venturi Astrolab are the three companies developing the LTV in a 12-month feasibility and demo phase.[209] A source selection statement by NASA provided further details on cost and overall feasibility on 9 April, 2024. The Intuitive Machines proposal was for $1.692 billion, Lunar Outpost for $1.727 billion and Astrolab for $1.928 billion to develop the vehicle.[210]

Shelter building construction

A render of the Artemis Base Camp

The Artemis Base Camp is the proposed lunar base to be established at the end of the 2020s. The Base camp is to be located in the south pole region near the two adjacent Shackleton and de-Gerlache craters,[211] due to this area's wide variety of lunar geography and also due to the abundance of water ice that is believed to exist in the lunar soils of the crater floors. The environs of these craters fall under the guidelines of the Outer Space Treaty.[208][212]

Foundational surface habitat

A render of the Foundational Surface Habitat (stationary configuration)

Most of the information about the Surface Habitat (SH) modules comes from studies and launch manifests which include a reference to its launch. It will be commercially built and commercially launched in 2028 along with the Pressurized Vehicle (PV).[213] The SH was formerly referred to as the Artemis Surface Asset. Current launch plans show that landing it on the surface would be similar to the HLS. The SH would be sent to the Gateway where it would then be attached to a descent stage and subsequently transported to the lunar surface with a commercial launcher and lander. It would use the same lunar transfer stage as used for the HLS. Other designs from 2019 see it being launched from an SLS Block 1B as a single unit and landing directly on the surface. It would then be hooked up to a surface power system launched by a CLPS mission and tested by the Artemis 6 crew.[208][214]

Pressurized rover ("Mobile Habitat")
NASA Habitable Mobility Platform based on the past Constellation Space Exploration Vehicle

The Pressurized Rover (PR) is a large, pressurized module used to enable crewed operation across large distances and live for multiple days. NASA had developed multiple pressurized rovers including what was formerly called the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). This rover was built for the Constellation program and was fabricated and then tested. In the 2020 flight manifest it was later referred to as the "Mobile Habitat" suggesting it could fill a similar role to the ILREC Lunar Bus. It would be ready for the crew to use on the surface but could also be autonomously controlled from the Gateway or other locations.

Mark Kirasich, who is the acting director of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems, has stated that the current plan is to partner with JAXA and Toyota to develop a closed cabin rover to support crews for up to 14 days (currently known as Lunar Cruiser). "It's very important to our leadership at the moment to involve JAXA in a major surface element", he said. "... The Japanese, and their auto industry, have a very strong interest in rover-type things. So, there was an idea to—even though we have done a lot of work—to let the Japanese lead development of a pressurized rover. So right now, that's the direction we're heading in".

In regard to the PR, senior-lunar-scientist Clive Neal said "Under Constellation, NASA had a sophisticated rover put together. It's pretty sad if it's never going to get to the Moon". However Neal also said that he understands the different mission objectives of the Constellation Program vs: those of the Artemis Program and the need of the Artemis Program to focus more on international collaboration.[208][218][219][220][221]

On 9 April 2024, it was announced that JAXA and NASA had signed an agreement stipulating that Japan would join the pressurized rover collaboration venture. And to design, develop, and operate a rover for crewed and uncrewed exploration of the Moon. In return, NASA will provide the launch and delivery of the rover to the Moon, as well as providing seats for two Japanese astronaut missions to the lunar surface, with the goal of these astronauts being the first non-Americans to travel to the Moon's surface. The pressurized rover is planned to accommodate two astronauts for up to 30 days outside. NASA plans to use the pressurized rover from Artemis VII and subsequent missions, over an approximate 10 year lifespan.[222]

Resource prospecting and research programs

As of February 2020, a lunar stay during a Phase 1 Artemis mission will be about seven days and will have five extravehicular activities (EVA). A notional concept of operations, i.e., a hypothetical but possible plan, would include the following: On Day 1 of the stay, astronauts touchdown on the Moon but do not conduct an EVA. Instead, they prepare for the EVA scheduled for the next day, in what is referred to as "The Road to EVA".[215]

On Day 2, the astronauts open the hatch on the Human Landing System and embark on EVA 1, which will be six hours long. It will include collecting a contingency sample, conducting public affairs activities, deploying the experiment package, and acquiring samples. The astronauts will stay close to the landing site on this first EVA. EVA 2 begins on day 3. The astronauts characterize and collect samples from permanently shadowed regions. Unlike the previous EVA, the astronauts will go farther from the landing site, up to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi), and up and down slopes of 20°.[216]

Day 4 will not include an EVA, but Day 5 will. EVA 3 may include activities such as collecting samples from an ejecta blanket. Day 6 will have the two astronauts deploy a geotechnical instrument alongside an environmental monitoring station for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Day 7 will have the final and shortest EVA. This EVA will last one hour, rather than the others' six hours in duration from egress to ingress, and mostly comprises preparations for the lunar ascent, including jettisoning hardware. Once the final EVA is concluded, the astronauts will return to the Human Landing System and the vehicle will launch from the surface and join up with Orion/Gateway.[217]

Specialized lunar equipment development

Artemis space suits

xEMU suit for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA)
OCSS suit for launch and reentry

The Artemis program will make use of two types of space suit revealed in October 2019: the Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (xEMU),[223] and the Orion Crew Survival System (OCSS).[224]

On 10 August 2021, a NASA Office of Inspector General audit reported a conclusion that the spacesuits would not be ready until April 2025 at the earliest, likely delaying the mission from the then planned late 2024.[225] In response to the IG report, SpaceX indicated that they could provide the suits.[226]

Commercial spacesuits

NASA published a draft RFP to procure commercially-produced spacesuits in order to meet the 2024 schedule.[227] On 2 June 2022, NASA announced that commercially produced spacesuits would be developed by Axiom Space and Collins Aerospace.[228] In early 2024, the development reached the critical design and test phase.[229][230]

Artemis flights

The Orion capsule in the Pacific Ocean, following the Exploration Flight Test-1 mission

Orion testing

A prototype version of the Orion Crew Module was launched on Exploration Flight Test-1 on 5 December 2014[231][232] atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket. Its reaction control system and other components were tested during two medium Earth orbits, reaching an apogee of 5,800 km (3,600 mi) and crossing the Van Allen radiation belts before making a high-energy re-entry at 32,000 km/h (20,000 mph).[233][234]

The Ascent Abort-2 test on 2 July 2019 tested the final iteration of the launch abort system on a 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) Orion boilerplate at maximum aerodynamic load,[235][236][237] using a custom Minotaur IV-derived launch vehicle built by Orbital ATK.[237][238]

Artemis 1–6

As of November 2022, all crewed Artemis missions will launch on the Space Launch System from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39B. Current plans call for some supporting hardware to be launched on other vehicles and from other launch pads.

Mission Patch Launch date Crew Launch vehicle Lander vehicle Duration Goal Status
Artemis 1
16 November 2022[64][4] SLS Block 1 25 days[239] Uncrewed lunar orbit and return Success
Artemis 2 September 2025[5] SLS Block 1 ~10 days 4-person lunar flyby Planned
Artemis 3 September 2026[5] TBA SLS Block 1 Starship HLS Option A [12] ~30 days 4-person lunar orbit with 2-person lunar landing.[240] Planned
Artemis 4 September 2028[11] TBA SLS Block 1B Starship HLS Option B [12] ~30 days 4-person lunar orbit, lunar landing,[12] and delivery of the I-HAB module to the Lunar Gateway.[241] Planned
Artemis 5 March 2030[242] TBA SLS Block 1B Blue Origin Blue Moon[243] ~30 days Lunar landing with the Lunar Terrain Vehicle and delivery of the ESPRIT Refueling Module to the Lunar Gateway, followed by a crewed lunar landing. Planned
Artemis 6 March 2031[242] TBA SLS Block 1B TBA ~30 days Lunar landing with the delivery of the Crew and Science Airlock module. Planned

Artemis 7–11

In November 2021, plans to return humans to the Moon in 2024 were cancelled, and the Artemis 3 mission was delayed until at least 2025. It has since been delayed to September 2026.[244] Artemis 7 is expected to deliver a crew of four astronauts to a surface lunar outpost known as the Foundation Habitat, along with the Mobile Habitat, which is expected to occur in March 2032.[11][166] The Foundation Habitat would be launched back to back with the Mobile Habitat by an undetermined super heavy launcher[166] and would be used for extended crewed lunar surface missions.[166][245][246]

Prior to each crewed Artemis mission, payloads to the Gateway, such as refueling depots and expendable elements of the lunar lander, would be deployed by commercial launch vehicles.[247][246] The most updated manifest includes missions suggested in NASA's timelines that have not been designed or funded from Artemis 4 to 9.[248][249][166][213]

Mission Launch date Crew Launch vehicle Duration Goal (proposed)
Artemis 7 March 2032[242] TBA SLS Block 1B ~30 days Lunar landing with the delivery of the Habitable Mobility Platform (Lunar Cruiser) to the surface
Artemis 8 2033 TBA SLS Block 1B ~60 days Lunar landing with the delivery of lunar surface logistics and the Foundational Surface Habitat
Artemis 9 2034 TBA SLS Block 2 ~60 days Lunar landing with the delivery of additional lunar surface logistics
Artemis 10 2035 (planned) TBA SLS Block 2 <180 days Lunar landing – a long-term stay with the delivery of lunar surface logistics
Artemis 11 2036 (planned) TBA SLS Block 2 ~365 days Lunar living – Expansion of lunar surface base and crew shift

Support missions schedule

Artemis support missions are robotic missions flown through the CLPS program and Gateway program, and HLS demo and delivery missions.[166]

Date [a] Mission objective Mission name Launch vehicle Outcome Notes
28 June 2022[250] NRHO Pathfinder mission CAPSTONE[251] CAPSTONE Electron Operational
8 January 2024[252][253] First launch of the Peregrine lunar lander by Astrobotic Technology[254] Peregrine Mission One Vulcan Centaur[255] Failure Landing abandoned due to excessive propellant leak and sun-pointer issue in the lander.[256]
15 February 2024[257] First launch of the Intuitive Machines Nova-C Odysseus lunar lander by Intuitive Machines[139] IM-1 Odysseus lander Falcon 9 Success
November 2024[111] Delivery of NASA's VIPER rover to the lunar surface by Astrobotic Technology's Griffin lunar lander[258] VIPER Falcon Heavy[259] Planned
Q4 2024[260] Second launch of an Intuitive Machines Nova-C lunar lander by Intuitive Machines IM-2 Falcon 9 Scheduled
Q4 2024[260][261] ISRU tech demonstration converting lunar ice to liquid water using Nova-C PRIME-1[262] Falcon 9[263] Planned
Q1 2025[260] Third launch of an Intuitive Machines Nova-C lunar lander by Intuitive Machines IM-3 Falcon 9 Scheduled
NET 2025[5] Launch of the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) and the Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) as an integrated assembly. First two Lunar Gateway modules. PPE-HALO Falcon Heavy Planned Artemis support mission
2025[5] Starship HLS uncrewed HLS Demo landing mission HLS Uncrewed Lunar Demo Starship Planned
2026[5][11] Delivery of Starship HLS for Artemis 3 HLS Crewed Lunar Demo Starship Planned
2027[11] Lunar Surface Power Demo; Lunar Surface Scaled Construction Demo 1; ISRU Pilot Excavator; ISRU Subscale Demo TO CT-1 Commercial launch vehicle Planned
2028[11] Delivery of Starship HLS for Artemis 4 Sustaining HLS Crewed Lunar Demo Starship Planned
2028[11] TBD HLS uncrewed HLS Demo landing mission TBD Sustaining HLS Uncrewed Lunar Demo Commercial launch vehicle Planned
2029[11] Delivery of Blue Moon HLS for Artemis 5 TBD Sustaining HLS Crewed Lunar Demo New Glenn Planned
2030[11] Delivery of TBD HLS for Artemis 6 TBD Sustaining HLS Services Commercial launch vehicle Planned
2030[11] Lunar Surface Scaled Construction Demo 2; Autonomous Robotics Demo; Deployable Hopper 2; ISRU Subscale Demo 2 TO CT-2 Commercial launch vehicle Planned
2030[11] Fission Surface Power Demo Artemis support mission Commercial launch vehicle Planned
2031[11] Delivery of TBD HLS for Artemis 7 TBD Sustaining HLS Services Commercial launch vehicle Planned
2032 (Proposed) Moon landing support mission(s) for Artemis 8 Artemis support mission Commercial launch vehicle Proposed
  1. ^ All future dates in the table are NET

Criticism

The Artemis program has received criticism from several space professionals.

Mark Whittington, who is a contributor to The Hill and an author of several space exploration studies, stated in an article that the "lunar orbit project doesn't help us get back to the Moon".[264]

Aerospace engineer, author, and Mars Society founder Robert Zubrin has voiced his distaste for the Gateway, which is part of the Artemis program as of 2027. He presented an alternative approach to a 2024 crewed lunar landing called "Moon Direct", a successor to his proposed Mars Direct. His vision phases out the SLS and Orion, replacing them with the SpaceX launch vehicles and SpaceX Dragon 2. It proposes using a heavy ferry/lander that would be refueled on the lunar surface via in situ resource utilization and transfer the crew from LEO to the lunar surface. The concept bears a heavy resemblance to NASA's own Space Transportation System proposal from the 1970s.[265]

Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin disagrees with NASA's current goals and priorities, including their plans for a lunar outpost. He questioned the benefit of the idea to "send a crew to an intermediate point in space, pick up a lander there and go down". However, Aldrin expressed support for Robert Zubrin's "Moon Direct" concept which involves lunar landers traveling from Earth orbit to the lunar surface and back.[266]

The program attracted criticism for the fact that at least 15 launches will be required to refuel HLS in orbit per crewed mission.[267] In 2024, SpaceX's Jennifer Jensen stated on a call that Starship HLS will require ten launches.[268]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ An Orion capsule was flown in 2014, but not the entire Orion spacecraft.
  2. ^ If an ancillary mission has already delivered Gateway to NRHO, HLS and Orion will dock to Gateway instead of to each other.

References

  1. ^ a b NASA Office of Inspector General (15 November 2021). NASA's Management of the Artemis Missions (PDF) (Report). NASA. p. 21. Retrieved 18 January 2023. To account for all Artemis costs for FYs 2021 through 2025, including Phase 2 projects like the SLS Block 1B, Mobile Launcher 2, and Gateway, we found that $25 billion should be added to the Artemis Plan's estimated costs, increasing the total costs over this 5-year period to $53 billion. Furthermore, when considering the $40 billion already spent on the Artemis mission from FYs 2012 to 2020, the total projected cost through FY 2025 becomes $93 billion.
  2. ^ a b c Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA: Moon to Mars". nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  3. ^ Artemis I Launch to the Moon (Official NASA Broadcast) - Nov. 16, 2022, 16 November 2022, retrieved 16 November 2022
  4. ^ a b c d "NASA Prepares Rocket, Spacecraft Ahead of Tropical Storm Nicole, Re-targets Launch". NASA. 8 November 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Smith, Marcia (9 January 2024). "NASA Delays Next Artemis Missions to 2025 and 2026". SpacePolicyOnline. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  6. ^ a b Gebhardt, Chris (6 April 2017). "NASA finally sets goals, missions for SLS — multi-step plan to Mars". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  7. ^ NASA (17 November 2022). "Gateway: overview". NASA. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  8. ^ a b Grush, Loren (18 July 2019). "NASA's daunting to-do list for sending people back to the Moon". The Verge. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  9. ^ Clark, Stephen (18 May 2020). "NASA will likely add a rendezvous test to the first piloted Orion space mission". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  10. ^ Foust, Jeff (21 July 2019). "NASA outlines plans for lunar lander development through commercial partnerships". SpaceNews. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Foust, Jeff (13 March 2023). "NASA planning to spend up to $1 billion on space station deorbit module". SpaceNews. Retrieved 13 March 2023.
  12. ^ a b c d Foust, Jeff (30 October 2022). "Lunar landing restored for Artemis 4 mission". SpaceNews. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  13. ^ a b NASA Fiscal Year 2025 Budget Summary, NASA, 2025. https://www.nasa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/nasa-fiscal-year-2025-budget-summary.pdf.
  14. ^ "Gateway Space Station – NASA". 12 June 2023. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  15. ^ a b "UAE starts historic Lunar Gateway project". SatellitePro ME. 22 January 2024. Retrieved 5 May 2024.
  16. ^ Moskowitz, Clara (7 January 2011). "NASA Stuck in Limbo as New Congress Takes Over". Space.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  17. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Bonilla, Dennis (8 September 2009). "Charter of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee". NASA. Archived from the original on 8 April 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  18. ^ Amos, Jonathan (11 October 2010). "Obama signs Nasa up to new future". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  19. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee; Augustine; Austin; Chyba; et al. "Seeking A Human Spaceflight Program Worthy of A Great Nation" (PDF). Final Report. NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  20. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "President Barack Obama on Space Exploration in the 21st Century". NASA. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  21. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "S.3729 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010". United States Congress. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  22. ^ Clark, Stephen (30 June 2017). "Trump signs order reviving long-dormant National Space Council". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  23. ^ a b Grush, Loren (17 May 2019). "NASA administrator on new Moon plan: "We're doing this in a way that's never been done before"". The Verge. Archived from the original on 4 July 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  24. ^ Pearlman, Robert (14 May 2019). "NASA Names New Moon Landing Program Artemis After Apollo's Sister". Space.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  25. ^ Chang, Kenneth (13 May 2019). "For Artemis Mission to Moon, NASA Seeks to Add Billions to Budget". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  26. ^ Harwood, William (17 July 2019). "NASA boss pleads for steady moon mission funding". CBS News. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  27. ^ "Senate appropriators advance bill funding NASA despite uncertainties about Artemis costs". SpaceNews. 27 September 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  28. ^ Fernholz, Tim (14 May 2019). "Trump wants US$1.6 billion for a Moon mission and proposes to get it from college aid". Quartz. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  29. ^ Berger, Eric (14 May 2019). "NASA reveals funding needed for Moon program, says it will be named Artemis". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  30. ^ Berger, Eric (11 February 2020). "NASA puts a price on a 2024 Moon landing – US$35 billion". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  31. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2021 Commerce-Justice-Science Funding Bill". 7 July 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  32. ^ "House bill offers flat funding for NASA". SpaceNews. 7 July 2020. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  33. ^ Burghardt, Thomas (1 May 2020). "NASA Selects Blue Origin, Dynetics, and SpaceX Human Landers for Artemis". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  34. ^ Berger, Eric (30 April 2020). "NASA awards lunar lander contracts to Blue Origin, Dynetics and Starship". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  35. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Potter, Sean (30 April 2020). "NASA Names Companies to Develop Human Landers for Artemis Missions". nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  36. ^ Bartels, Meghan (5 February 2021). "NASA has a lot to tackle this year as Biden takes charge. Here's what the agency's acting chief has to say". Space.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  37. ^ Feldscher, Jacqueline (16 February 2021). "NASA reassesses Trump's 2024 moon goal". Politico. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  38. ^ Berger, Eric (18 February 2021). "Acting NASA chief says 2024 Moon landing no longer a "realistic" target". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  39. ^ "White House endorses Artemis program". SpaceNews. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  40. ^ "Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jen Psaki and National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan, February 4, 2021". whitehouse.gov. 4 February 2021. Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  41. ^ Rincon, Paul (5 February 2021). "Artemis: Biden administration backs US Moon shot". BBC News Online. Archived from the original on 16 March 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  42. ^ Davenport, Christian (2 March 2021). "The Biden administration has set out to dismantle Trump's legacy, except in one area: Space". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  43. ^ a b Berger, Eric (16 April 2021). "NASA selects SpaceX as its sole provider for a lunar lander - "We looked at what's the best value to the government."". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  44. ^ "Blue Origin protests NASA Human Landing System award". SpaceNews. 26 April 2021. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  45. ^ "Dynetics protests NASA HLS award". SpaceNews. 27 April 2021. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  46. ^ Foust, Jeff (30 July 2021). "GAO denies Blue Origin and Dynetics protests of NASA lunar lander contract". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  47. ^ "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin sues NASA, escalating its fight for a Moon lander contract". The Verge. 16 August 2021. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021. protest prevented SpaceX from starting its contract for 95 days while the GAO adjudicated the case.
  48. ^ Sheetz, Michael (16 August 2021). "Bezos' Blue Origin takes NASA to federal court over award of lunar lander contract to SpaceX". CNBC. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  49. ^ Sheetz, Michael (4 November 2021). ""Bezos' Blue Origin loses NASA lawsuit over SpaceX $2.9 billion lunar lander contract"". CNBC. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  50. ^ "NASA Releases Interactive Graphic Novel "First Woman"" Archived 26 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine. NASA, September 25, 2021.
  51. ^ "NASA awards US$45.5 million to 11 American companies to "advance human lunar landers"". mlive.com. 22 May 2019. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  52. ^ "NASA Selects Five U.S. Companies to Mature Artemis Lander Concepts". NASA. 14 September 2021. Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  53. ^ McGuinness, Jackie; Russell, Jimi; Sudnik, Janet; Potter, Sean (23 March 2022). "NASA Provides Update to Astronaut Moon Lander Plans Under Artemis". NASA. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  54. ^ Wall, Mike (23 March 2022). "NASA wants another moon lander for Artemis astronauts, not just SpaceX's Starship". Space.com. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  55. ^ Clark, Stephen (26 April 2022). "NASA's moon rocket rolls back to Vehicle Assembly Building for repairs". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  56. ^ Foust, Jeff (31 August 2022). "Next Artemis 1 launch attempt set for Sept. 3". SpaceNews. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
  57. ^ Foust, Jeff (3 September 2022). "Second Artemis 1 launch attempt scrubbed". SpaceNews. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  58. ^ Kraft, Rachel (3 September 2022). "Artemis I Launch Attempt Scrubbed". NASA blog. NASA. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  59. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (8 September 2022). "NASA discusses path to SLS repairs as launch uncertainty looms for September, October". NASASpaceflight. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  60. ^ Kraft, Rachel (24 September 2022). "Artemis I Managers Wave Off Sept. 27 Launch, Preparing for Rollback – Artemis". NASA Blogs. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  61. ^ "NASA to Roll Artemis I Rocket and Spacecraft Back to VAB Tonight – Artemis". blogs.nasa.gov. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  62. ^ Foust, Jeff (26 September 2022). "SLS to roll back to VAB as hurricane approaches Florida". SpaceNews. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  63. ^ "NASA Sets Date for Next Launch Attempt for Artemis I Moon Mission". NASA. 12 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  64. ^ a b Wattles, Jackie (8 November 2022). "NASA's Artemis I mission delayed again as storm barrels toward launch site". CNN. Warner Bros Discovery. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  65. ^ Witze, Alexandria (16 November 2022). "Lift off! Artemis Moon rocket launch kicks off new era of human exploration – NASA's Artemis I has entered Earth orbit. It will test a rocket and capsule that could return astronauts to the Moon after 50 years". Nature. 611 (7937): 643–644. doi:10.1038/d41586-022-02310-w. PMID 36385285. S2CID 253579417.
  66. ^ "Splashdown! NASA's Orion Returns to Earth After Historic Moon Mission". www.nasa.gov.uk. NASA. 11 December 2022. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  67. ^ "Handing over European Service Module for Artemis II". www.esa.int. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  68. ^ Sloss, Philip (2 April 2024). "NASA, Lockheed Martin working to resolve Artemis II Orion issues, deliver spacecraft around summer's end". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2 April 2024.
  69. ^ NASA Orion Spacecraft (4 April 2024), Artemis II Orion Lifted into Vacuum Chamber, retrieved 6 April 2024
  70. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (13 April 2024). "Artemis 2 Orion spacecraft starts testing ahead of moon mission with astronauts in 2025 (video)". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2024.
  71. ^ "NASA's Artemis II Orion Spacecraft Completes Electromagnetic Testing". blogs.nasa.gov. 30 April 2024. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  72. ^ "NASA's Readiness for the Artemis II Crewed Mission to Lunar Orbit" (PDF). 1 May 2024.
  73. ^ Elizabeth Howell (15 May 2024). "Artemis 2 astronauts simulated a day in the life on their moon mission. Here's what they learned (exclusive)". Space.com. Retrieved 15 May 2024.
  74. ^ a b c
  75. ^ "Canadian Space Agency astronauts Jenni Gibbons and Joshua Kutryk to contribute to future missions, from the International Space Station to the Moon". Cision. Longueuil, Quebec. CNW Group. 22 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  76. ^ Nassar, Hana Mae (22 November 2023). "Canadian astronauts receive new assignments". CityNews. Vancouver. Archived from the original on 22 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  77. ^ Connolly, Amanda (16 December 2020). "A Canadian astronaut will be on NASA's Artemis deep space lunar orbit as well the first non American to leave earth orbit". Global News. Archived from the original on 16 December 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  78. ^ "NASA, SpaceX Test Starship Lunar Lander Docking System – NASA". Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  79. ^ "Rocket Propellant Tanks for NASA's Artemis III Mission Take Shape - NASA". 16 February 2024. Retrieved 15 May 2024.
  80. ^ Young, Chris (29 April 2024). "SpaceX's Starship lunar-landing tech passes key in-space refueling test". Interesting Engineering. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  81. ^ "[Video] Airbus Defence and Space on LinkedIn: #moon #teamairbus #esm #orion | 16 comments". www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  82. ^ Cooper, Naomi (27 March 2024). "NASA Unveils 3 Lunar Instruments to Fly on Artemis III Mission". Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  83. ^ Cooper, Naomi (13 March 2024). "NASA Begins Design, Production of Upgraded SLS Rocket for Artemis IV". Retrieved 11 May 2024.
  84. ^ "Gateway: Forward Progress on Artemis IV – NASA". 30 April 2024. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  85. ^ "NASA's New Mobile Launcher Stacks Up for Future Artemis Missions – NASA". 10 May 2024. Retrieved 11 May 2024.
  86. ^ a b c d "Gateway Space Station – NASA". 12 June 2023. Retrieved 3 May 2024.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  87. ^ Foust, Jeff (20 January 2022). "NASA foresees gap in lunar landings after Artemis 3". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  88. ^ "NASA Selects Blue Origin as Second Artemis Lunar Lander Provider – NASA". Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  89. ^ "FY 2025 Budget Request" (PDF). NASA. 12 June 2023. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  90. ^ a b Burghardt, Thomas (14 May 2019). "NASA aims for quick start to 2024 Moon landing via newly named Artemis Program". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  91. ^ a b Harwood, William (31 May 2019). "NASA taps three companies for commercial moon missions". CBS News. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  92. ^ "NASA awards contracts to three companies to land payloads on the moon". SpaceNews. 31 May 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  93. ^ Bergin, Chris (19 March 2018). "NASA courts commercial options for Lunar Landers". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018. NASA's new Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) effort to award contracts to provide capabilities as soon as 2019.
  94. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA Expands Plans for Moon Exploration: More Missions, More Science". NASA. 30 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  95. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (28 April 2018). "NASA emphasizes commercial lunar lander plans with Resource Prospector cancellation". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018. ... selected but unspecified instruments from RP will instead be flown on future commercial lunar lander missions under a new Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program. NASA released a draft request for proposals for that program April 27. [...] Under CLPS, NASA plans to issue multiple indefinite-delivery indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contracts to companies capable of delivering payloads to the lunar surface. Companies would have to demonstrate their ability to land at least 10 kilograms of payload on the lunar surface by the end of 2021.
  96. ^ Werner, Debra (24 May 2018). "NASA to begin buying rides on commercial lunar landers by year's end". spacenews.com. SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018. NASA also will look for payloads for the miniature landers in addition to landers capable of delivering 500 to 1000 kilograms to the surface of the Moon.
  97. ^ a b c d e Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA Announces New Partnerships for Commercial Lunar Payload Delivery Services" (Press release). NASA. 29 November 2018. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  98. ^ a b c d "NASA chooses three companies to send landers to the moon". upi.com. UPI. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  99. ^ "Commercial lunar lander company terminates NASA contract". SpaceNews. 30 July 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  100. ^ Richardson, Derek (26 February 2019). "NASA selects experiments to fly aboard commercial lunar landers". Spaceflight Insider. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  101. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Hautaluoma, Grey (1 July 2019). "NASA Selects 12 New Lunar Science, Technology Investigations" (Press release). NASA. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  102. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "DRAFT Lunar Surface Instrument and Technology Payloads Call for Community Comment". Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). NASA. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  103. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA Selects Experiments for Possible Lunar Flights in 2019" (Press release). NASA. 21 February 2019. Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  104. ^ Grush, Loren (18 November 2019). "NASA partners with SpaceX, Blue Origin, and more to send large payloads to the Moon". The Verge. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  105. ^ a b c d e f Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "New Companies Join Growing Ranks of NASA Partners for Artemis Program" (Press release). NASA. 18 November 2019. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  106. ^ a b "NASA selects Masten Space Systems to deliver cargo to the Moon in 2022". Techcrunch. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  107. ^ "Masten Space Systems Awarded $76M to Help NASA Deliver Lunar Sci-Tech Payloads". Govcon Wire. 9 April 2020. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  108. ^ Foust, Jeff (23 June 2021). "Masten delays first lunar lander mission". SpaceNews. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  109. ^ a b "NASA Selects Firefly Aerospace for Artemis Commercial Moon Delivery in 2023". NASA (Press release). 4 February 2021. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  110. ^ "Lunar Lander". Firefly Aerospace. 1 February 2021. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  111. ^ a b "NASA Replans CLPS Delivery of VIPER to 2024 to Reduce Risk". NASA. 18 July 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  112. ^ Bartels, Meghan (16 October 2019). "Moon VIPER: NASA Wants to Send a Water-Sniffing Rover to the Lunar South Pole in 2022". Space.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  113. ^ a b Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Loff, Sarah (23 October 2019). "New VIPER Lunar Rover to Map Water Ice on the Moon". NASA. Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  114. ^ "VIPER lunar rover mission cost increases". SpaceNews. 3 March 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  115. ^ Foust, Jeff (13 April 2021). "Astrobotic selects Falcon Heavy to launch NASA's VIPER lunar rover". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  116. ^ "NASA Selects Draper to Fly Research to Far Side of Moon". NASA. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  117. ^ Foust, Jeff (29 July 2019). "Commercial lunar lander company terminates NASA contract". Space News. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  118. ^ "NASA Picks U.S., Japanese Companies for Lunar Soil Collection". 3 December 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  119. ^ Potter, Sean (3 December 2020). "NASA Selects Companies to Collect Lunar Resources for Artemis". NASA. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  120. ^ September 2020, Mike Wall 01 (September 2020). "Meet 'Lunar Cruiser': Japan's big moon rover for astronauts gets a nickname". Space.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  121. ^ "Key Propulsion System Components To Be Delivered By ArianeGroup for Artemis 3 Moon Mission". Sat News. 28 September 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  122. ^ "Boeing selects ESAB for space launch system project". MachineBuilding.net. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  123. ^ "Boeing extends partnership with OHB's MT Aerospace". spacewatch.global. 8 July 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  124. ^ Krone, Lars (April 2021). "Sky busters". Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  125. ^ "Space Launch System Highlights" (PDF). Nasa.gov. September 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  126. ^ "Orion European Service Module". Airbus. 18 October 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  127. ^ Fletcher, Clare (15 March 2022). "Fleet Space Technologies Shoot for the Moon and Mars". SpaceAustralia.com.
  128. ^ Savage, Crispin (17 December 2020). "Scientists part of resource mission to the Moon". University of Adelaide. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  129. ^ Gramenz, Jack (17 December 2020). "NASA Artemis moon mission to be supported by Seven Sisters consortium". news.com.au. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  130. ^ "About Canadarm3". Canadian Space Agency. 22 August 2022. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  131. ^ "Exclusive: Trump administration drafting 'Artemis Accords' pact for moon mining". Reuters. 6 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  132. ^ Wall, Mike (15 May 2020). "NASA lays out 'Artemis Accords' for responsible Moon exploration". Space.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  133. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA: Artemis Accords". nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  134. ^ Grush, Loren (13 October 2020). "US and seven other countries sign NASA's Artemis Accords to set rules for exploring the Moon". The Verge. Archived from the original on 13 October 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  135. ^ "Exploration Ground Systems". NASA. 21 August 2018. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  136. ^ "Exploration Ground Systems Overview". NASA. 20 June 2018. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  137. ^ "Exploration Ground Systems, Jacobs practice building SLS boosters in the VAB". NASASpaceFlight.com. 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  138. ^ Foust, Jeff (19 August 2019). "NASA issues call for proposals for Gateway logistics". SpaceNews. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  139. ^ a b Berger, Eric (31 May 2019). "NASA picks three companies to attempt Moon landings in 2020 and 2021". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  140. ^ Sheetz, Michael (30 April 2020). "NASA awards contracts to Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk to land astronauts on the Moon". cnbc.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  141. ^ Barensky, Stefan (24 July 2019). "Airbus propose un remorqueur translunaire" (in French). Aerospatium. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  142. ^ Sloss, Philip (11 September 2018). "NASA updates Lunar Gateway plans". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  143. ^ a b "NASA, Northrop Grumman Finalize Moon Outpost Living Quarters Contract". NASA (Press release). 9 July 2021. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  144. ^ "NASA Awards Contract to Launch Initial Elements for Lunar Outpost". NASA (Press release). 9 February 2021. Archived from the original on 9 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  145. ^ a b c Gebhardt, Chris (17 June 2019). "NASA determining the best course for commercial Lunar Gateway resupply". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  146. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Aguiar, Laura (14 June 2019). "NASA to Partner with American Industry to Supply Artemis Moon Missions" (Press release). NASA. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  147. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Potter, Sean (27 March 2020). "NASA Awards Artemis Contract for Gateway Logistics Services". NASA. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  148. ^ Weitering, Hanneke (23 May 2019). "NASA Has a Full Plate of Lunar Missions Before Astronauts Can Return to Moon". Space.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019. And before NASA sends astronauts to the moon in 2024, the agency will first have to launch five aspects of the Gateway, all of which will be commercial vehicles that launch separately and join each other in lunar orbit. First, a power and propulsion element will launch in 2022. Then, the crew module will launch (without a crew) in 2023. In 2024, during the months leading up to the crewed landing, NASA will launch the last critical components: a transfer vehicle that will ferry landers from the Gateway to a lower lunar orbit, a descent module that will bring the astronauts to the lunar surface, and an ascent module that will bring them back up to the transfer vehicle, which will then return them to the Gateway.
  149. ^ Smith, Marcia (26 May 2021). "Nelson: "Watch the Chinese"". SpacePolicyOnline.com. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  150. ^ a b "Blue Origin wins lion's share of NASA funding for human-rated lunar lander". spaceflightnow.com. Spaceflight Now. 30 April 2020. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  151. ^ Foust, Jeff (13 March 2019). "NASA considering flying Orion on commercial launch vehicles". Space News. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  152. ^ Sheetz, Michael (12 February 2018). "Elon Musk says the new SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket crushes its competition on cost". CNBC. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  153. ^ "SpaceX targets 2021 commercial Starship launch". 28 June 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  154. ^ Vance, Ashlee (3 February 2020). "A Small Rocket Maker is Running a Different Kind of Space Race". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  155. ^ Davenport, Christian (2 October 2020). "Virginia has a rocket launch site, and it's about to grow with the most successful startup since SpaceX". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  156. ^ Wall, Mike (19 November 2019). "SpaceX's Starship May Fly for Just $2 Million Per Mission, Elon Musk Says". Space.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  157. ^ Rich, Smith (2 June 2018). "Europe Complains: SpaceX Rocket Prices Are Too Cheap to Beat". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  158. ^ Gallois, Dominique (1 December 2014). "Ariane 6, un chantier européen pour rester dans la course spatiale" [Ariane 6, a European site to remain in the space race]. Le Monde.fr (in French). Le Monde. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  159. ^ "ESA Television - Videos - 2024 - 05 - Ariane 6 first flight: timelapse of transfer and assembly on the launch pad". www.esa.int. Retrieved 8 May 2024.
  160. ^ "SLS – Artemis". blogs.nasa.gov. 29 July 2022. Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  161. ^ Hambleton, Kathryn (27 August 2018). "First Flight With Crew Important Step on Long-Term Return to Moon". NASA. Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  162. ^ Loff, Sarah (15 October 2019). "NASA Commits to Future Artemis Missions With More SLS Rocket Stages". NASA. Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  163. ^ "Space Launch System". aerospaceguide.net. 26 June 2016. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  164. ^ Sloss, Philip (17 February 2021). "NASA completes Exploration Upper Stage CDR, focuses new office on SLS Block 1B development". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  165. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The NASA Authorization Act of 2010". Featured Legislation. Washington D.C., United States: United States Senate. 15 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  166. ^ a b c d e f Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Forward to the Moon: NASA's Strategic Plan for Human Exploration" (PDF). NASA. 4 September 2019 [Updated 9 April 2019]. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  167. ^ Kyle, Ed (16 May 2019). "NASA's Space Launch System". spacelaunchreport. Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  168. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Loff, Sarah (16 October 2019). "NASA Commits to Future Artemis Missions With More SLS Rocket Stages". NASA. Archived from the original on 17 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  169. ^ a b As Artemis Moves Forward, NASA Picks SpaceX to Land Next Americans on Moon NASA. Apr 16, 2021. By Monica Witt. Retrieved 2023-04-16.
  170. ^ "SpaceX". SpaceX. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  171. ^ "Starship Users Guide V1.0" (PDF). SpaceX. March 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2022.
  172. ^ "NASA plans to launch first two Gateway elements on same rocket". 6 May 2020. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  173. ^ "SpaceX wins NASA commercial cargo contract for lunar Gateway". SpaceNews. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  174. ^ Potter, Sean (27 March 2020). "NASA Awards Artemis Contract for Gateway Logistics Services". NASA. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  175. ^ Foust, Jeff (27 March 2020). "SpaceX wins NASA commercial cargo contract for lunar Gateway". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  176. ^ Clark, Stephen. "NASA picks SpaceX to deliver cargo to Gateway station in lunar orbit". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  177. ^ Clark, Stephen. "NASA picks SpaceX to deliver cargo to Gateway station in lunar orbit". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  178. ^ "Dragon XL revealed as NASA ties SpaceX to Lunar Gateway supply contract". 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  179. ^ "NASA delays starting contract with SpaceX for Gateway cargo services". 15 April 2021. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  180. ^ O'Shea, Claire (19 May 2023). "NASA Selects Blue Origin as Second Artemis Lunar Lander Provider". NASA. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  181. ^ Roulette, Joey (19 May 2023). "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin wins NASA contract to build astronaut lunar lander". Reuters. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  182. ^ Brown, Katherine (16 April 2021). "As Artemis Moves Forward, NASA Picks SpaceX to Land Next Americans on Moon". NASA.gov. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  183. ^ O'Shea, Claire (19 May 2023). "NASA Selects Blue Origin as Second Artemis Lunar Lander Provider". NASA. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  184. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Jackson, Shanessa (11 September 2018). "Competition Seeks University Concepts for Gateway and Deep Space Exploration Capabilities". nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  185. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Greicius, Tony (20 September 2016). "JPL Seeks Robotic Spacecraft Development for Asteroid Redirect Mission". nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  186. ^ "NASA closing out Asteroid Redirect Mission". spacenews.com. SpaceNews. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  187. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission". jpl.nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  188. ^ "NASA awards Artemis contract for lunar gateway power, propulsion". aerotechnews.com. 25 May 2019. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  189. ^ "Deep Space Gateway and Transport: Concepts for Mars, Moon Exploration Unveiled | Space Exploration". sci-news.com. 4 April 2017. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  190. ^ Clark, Stephen (24 May 2019). "NASA chooses Maxar to build keystone module for lunar Gateway station". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  191. ^ Foust, Jeff (3 November 2017). "NASA issues study contracts for Deep Space Gateway element". SpaceNews. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  192. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (6 April 2017). "NASA finally sets goals, missions for SLS – eyes multi-step plan to Mars". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  193. ^ Foust, Jeff (30 August 2019). "ISS partners endorse modified Gateway plans". SpaceNews. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  194. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA Asks American Companies to Deliver Supplies for Artemis Moon Missions" (Press release). NASA. 23 August 2019. NASA Press Release M019-14.
  195. ^ Planetary Society. "Humans in Deep Space". planetary.org. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  196. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (23 July 2019). "NASA to sole source Gateway habitation module to Northrop Grumman". SpaceNews. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  197. ^ a b Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Justification for other than full and open competition (JOFOC) for the Minimal Habitation Module (MHM)". fbo.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  198. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Anderson, Gina (5 June 2020). "NASA Awards Northrop Grumman Artemis Contract for Gateway Crew Cabin". NASA. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  199. ^ Messier, Doug (23 July 2019). "NASA Awards Contract to Northrop Grumman for Lunar Gateway Habitat Module". Parabolic Arc. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  200. ^ "NASA takes Gateway off the critical path for 2024 lunar return". spacenews.com. SpaceNews. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  201. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Potter, Sean (27 October 2020). "NASA, European Space Agency Formalize Artemis Gateway Partnership". NASA. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  202. ^ Wall, Mike (27 October 2020). "Europe will help build NASA's moon-orbiting Gateway space station". Space.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  203. ^ Pearlman, Robert Z. (10 January 2020). "NASA graduates new class of astronauts to join Artemis-era missions". Space.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  204. ^ "Meet the Artemis Team". NASA. 4 June 2019. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  205. ^ Foust, Jeff (22 August 2022). "The time has finally come for Artemis 1". The Space Review. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  206. ^ a b Artemis Deep Space Habitation: Enabling a Sustained Human Presence on the Moon and Beyond August, 2022. By Paul Kessler. Retrieved 2023-04-18.
  207. ^ "NASA Identifies Candidate Regions for Landing Next Americans on Moon". The National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 21 May 2024.
  208. ^ a b c d Artemis Program – NASA's Plan for Sustained Lunar Exploration and Development (PDF) (Report). NASA. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  209. ^ "NASA Selects Companies to Advance Moon Mobility for Artemis Missions – NASA". Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  210. ^ Foust, Jeff (15 April 2024). "NASA document outlines selection of lunar rover companies". SpaceNews. Retrieved 15 April 2024.
  211. ^ updated, Leonard David last (1 July 2022). "Where will NASA set up its moon base?". Space.com. Retrieved 12 May 2024.
  212. ^ "Artemis Plan – NASA's Lunar Exploration Program Overview" (PDF). NASA. September 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  213. ^ a b Weitering, Hanneke (12 February 2020). "NASA has a plan for yearly Artemis moon flights through 2030. The first one could fly in 2021". Space.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  214. ^ Berger, Eric (20 May 2020). "NASA's full Artemis plan revealed: 37 launches and a lunar outpost". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  215. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Exploration EVA System Concept of Operations Summary for Artemis Phase 1 Lunar Surface Mission". ntrs.nasa.gov. NASA Technical Report Server. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  216. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Exploration EVA System Concept of Operations Summary for Artemis Phase 1 Lunar Surface Mission". ntrs.nasa.gov. NASA Technical Report Server. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  217. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Exploration EVA System Concept of Operations Summary for Artemis Phase 1 Lunar Surface Mission". ntrs.nasa.gov. NASA Technical Report Server. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  218. ^ "NASA to seek ideas for an Artemis lunar rover". SpaceNews. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  219. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA - Three Days in the Desert Tests Lunar "RV"". Nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  220. ^ Berger, Eric (15 July 2020). "NASA's first lunar habitat may be an RV-like rover built by Toyota". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  221. ^ Bullard, Benjamin (15 July 2020). "NASA eyes closed-cabin rover "like an RV for the Moon" in first step toward long-term lunar presence". syfy.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  222. ^ "NASA, Japan Advance Space Cooperation, Sign Agreement for Lunar Rover – NASA".
  223. ^ Mahoney, Erin (4 October 2019). "A Next Generation Spacesuit for the Artemis Generation of Astronauts". NASA. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  224. ^ Crane, Aimee (15 October 2019). "Orion Suit Equipped to Expect the Unexpected on Artemis Missions". NASA. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  225. ^ "NASA's development of next-generation spacesuits" (PDF). 10 August 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021. , the suits would not be ready for flight until April 2025 at the earliest ... a lunar landing in late 2024 as NASA currently plans is not feasible.
  226. ^ "Elon Musk offers for SpaceX to make NASA spacesuits, after watchdog says program to cost $1 billion". CNBC. 10 August 2021. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  227. ^ "NASA Empowers Industry in Spacesuit Plan for Artemis, Space Station". NASA. 27 July 2021. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  228. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (1 June 2022). "NASA just picked these 2 companies to build next-gen spacesuits for the moon, space station". Space.com.
  229. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (23 January 2024). "Artemis moon spacesuits prepped for tests ahead of delayed 2026 lunar landing". Space.com. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  230. ^ Boyer, Charles (29 April 2024). "Axiom Space Tests Lunar EVA Suit At Neutral Buoyancy Lab In Houston". TalkOfTitusville.com. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  231. ^ Davis, Jason (5 December 2014). "Orion Returns to Earth after Successful Test Flight". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019. NASA's Orion spacecraft returned safely to Earth this morning following a picture-perfect test mission. [...] Orion itself was originally part of NASA's now-defunct Constellation program, and is now a key component of the space agency's Mars plans.
  232. ^ Clark, Stuart; Sample, Ian; Yuhas, Alan (5 December 2014). "Orion spacecraft's flawless test flight puts Mars exploration one step closer". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019. The launch at 12.05 UTC aboard a Delta IV heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, was as free of problems as Thursday's aborted attempt was full of them. Immediately, Nasa tweeted "Liftoff! #Orion's flight test launches a critical step on our #JourneytoMars".
  233. ^ Kramer, Miriam (5 December 2014). "Splashdown! NASA's Orion Spaceship Survives Epic Test Flight as New Era Begins". Space.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018. Orion's key systems were put to the test during the flight, which launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta 4 Heavy rocket [...] the craft hit Earth's atmosphere as the capsule was flying through space at about 20,000 mph (32,000 km/h).
  234. ^ "Orion Exploration Flight Test No. 1 timeline". Spaceflight Now. 4 December 2014. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2018. The first orbital test flight of NASA's Orion crew capsule will lift off on top of a United Launch Alliance Delta 4 rocket from Cape Canaveral's Complex 37B launch pad. The rocket will send the unmanned crew module 3,600 miles above Earth...
  235. ^ Sloss, Philip (24 May 2019). "NASA Orion AA-2 vehicle at the launch pad for July test". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019. This will be the second and final planned LAS test following the Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) development test conducted in 2010 as a part of the ccanceled [sic] Constellation Program and the abort system design changed from PA-1 to AA-2 both inside and outside [...] in preparation for a scheduled daybreak test on 2 July 2010.
  236. ^ "Image: The Orion test crew capsule". Phys.org. 3 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018. In the Ascent Abort-2 test, NASA will verify that the Orion spacecraft's launch abort system can steer the capsule and astronauts inside it to safety in the event of an issue with the Space Launch System rocket when the spacecraft is under the highest aerodynamic loads it will experience during ascent...
  237. ^ a b "NASA's Ascent Abort-2 Flight Test Successfully Completed". NASA. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  238. ^ Orbital Sciences Corporation (11 April 2007). "Orbital to Provide Abort Test Booster for NASA Testing". Northrop Grumman. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019. Orbital Sciences Corporation (NYSE:ORB) today announced that it has been selected [...] to design and build the next-generation NASA Orion Abort Test Booster (ATB).
  239. ^ "NASA: Artemis I". NASA. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  240. ^ Foust, Jeff (9 November 2021). "NASA delays human lunar landing to at least 2025". SpaceNews. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  241. ^ "FY 2022 Budget Estimates – Gateway – Program Projects – International Habitat (I-Hab)" (PDF). NASA. 6 May 2021. p. 97. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Delivery of I-Hab to the Gateway will be via the SLS Block 1B launch vehicle with Orion providing orbital insertion and docking.
  242. ^ a b c https://www.nasa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/nasa-fiscal-year-2025-budget-summary.pdf
  243. ^ O'Shea, Claire (19 May 2023). "NASA Selects Blue Origin as Second Artemis Lunar Lander Provider". NASA. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
  244. ^ Sheetz, Michael (9 November 2021). "NASA delays astronaut moon landing to 2025". CNBC. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  245. ^ Berger 2019a. "This decade-long plan, which entails 37 launches of private and NASA rockets, as well as a mix of robotic and human landers, culminates with a 'Lunar Surface Asset Deployment' in 2028, likely the beginning of a surface outpost for long-duration crew stays".
  246. ^ a b Berger 2019a, [Illustration]. "NASA's 'notional' plan for a human return to the Moon by 2024, and an outpost by 2028".
  247. ^ Foust 2019a. "After Artemis 3, NASA would launch four additional crewed missions to the lunar surface between 2025 and 2028. Meanwhile, the agency would work to expand the Gateway by launching additional components and crew vehicles and laying the foundation for an eventual Moon base".
  248. ^ "NASA Exploration Production and Operations Long-Term Sustainability Request for Information (RFI)". GovTribe. 25 October 2021. p. 5. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  249. ^ Foust, Jeff (18 April 2019). "Independent report concludes 2033 human Mars mission is not feasible". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  250. ^ Figliozzi, Gianine (8 June 2022). "CAPSTONE Mission Launch No Longer Targeting June 13". NASA. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  251. ^ "Rocket Lab to Launch NASA Funded Commercial Moon Mission from New Zealand". Rocket Lab (Press release). 6 August 2021. Archived from the original on 8 August 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  252. ^ Belam, Martin (8 January 2024). "Nasa Peregrine 1 launch: Vulcan Centaur rocket carrying Nasa moon lander lifts off in Florida – live updates". the Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  253. ^ McCrea, Aaron (8 January 2024). "Vulcan successfully launches Peregrine lunar lander on inaugural flight". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  254. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Potter, Sean (31 May 2019). "NASA Selects First Commercial Moon Landing Services for Artemis". NASA. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  255. ^ "Astrobotic Selects United Launch Alliance Vulcan Centaur Rocket to Launch its First Mission to the Moon". ulalaunch.com. United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  256. ^ Fisher, Jackie Wattles, Kristin (8 January 2024). "Peregrine mission abandons Moon landing attempt after suffering 'critical' fuel loss". CNN. Retrieved 9 January 2024.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  257. ^ Sharp, John (15 February 2024). "SpaceX launches Intuitive Machines IM-1 mission from Florida". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  258. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA Selects Astrobotic to Fly Water-Hunting Rover to the Moon". NASA. 11 June 2020. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  259. ^ "Astrobotic selects Falcon Heavy to launch NASA's VIPER lunar rover". 13 April 2021. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  260. ^ a b c Foust, Jeff (13 February 2024). "Intuitive Machines ready for launch of its first lunar lander". SpaceNews. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  261. ^ Rainbow, Jason (19 April 2022). "Lonestar emerges from stealth with plans for lunar data centers". SpaceNews. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  262. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "NASA Lunar ISRU Strategy" (PDF). ntrs.nasa.gov. NASA. 10 October 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  263. ^ "Intuitive Machines picks SpaceX for second Moon mission". Houston Chronicle. 13 January 2021. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  264. ^ Whittington, Mark (16 June 2018). "NASA's unnecessary US$504 million lunar orbit project doesn't help us get back to the Moon". The Hill. Archived from the original on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  265. ^ "Moon Direct – The New Atlantis". 28 April 2021. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  266. ^ Foust, Jeff (16 November 2018). "Advisory group skeptical of NASA lunar exploration plans". SpaceNews. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  267. ^ "At Least 15 Starship Launches Needed to Execute Artemis III Lunar Landing". Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  268. ^ Foust, Jeff (9 January 2024). "Jeff Foust on X: "Best part of the just-completed briefing: question about how many refueling launches will be needed for Starship HLS..."". X. Retrieved 10 January 2024.

Sources

{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Artemis program
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?