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Achintya Bheda Abheda

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Achintya-Bheda-Abheda (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेद, acintyabhedābheda in IAST) is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference.[1] In Sanskrit achintya means 'inconceivable',[1] bheda translates as 'difference', and abheda translates as 'non-difference'.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534 CE), the founder of Achintya Bheda Abheda school and Gaudiya Vaishnavism

The Gaudiya Vaishnava religious tradition employs the term in relation to the relationship of creation and creator (Krishna, Svayam Bhagavan),[2][3] between God and his energies.[4] It is believed that this philosophy was taught by the movement's theological founder Chaitanya Mahaprabhu[5] (1486–1534) and differentiates the Gaudiya tradition from the other Vaishnava Sampradayas. It can be understood as an integration of the strict dualist (Dvaita) theology of Madhvacharya and the qualified monism (Vishishtadvaita) of Ramanuja.[6]

Historical perspective

Historically within Hinduism there are two conflicting philosophies regarding the relationship between living beings (jiva or atma) and God (Ishvara, Brahman or Bhagavan). Advaita schools assert the monistic view that the individual soul and God are one and the same,[7] whereas Dvaita schools give the dualistic argument that the individual soul and God are eternally separate.[8] The philosophy of Achintya-bheda-abheda includes elements of both viewpoints. The living soul is intrinsically linked with the Supreme Lord, and yet at the same time is not the same as God - the exact nature of this relationship being inconceivable to the human mind. The Soul is considered to be part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Same in quality but not in quantity. God having all opulence in fullness, the spirit soul however, having only a partial expression of His divine opulence. God in this context is compared to a fire and the souls as sparks coming off of the flame.

Philosophy

The theological view of achintya-bheda-abheda tattva asserts that God is simultaneously "one with and different from His creation". God's separate existence in His own personal form is not denied, even as, creation (or what is termed in Vaishnava theology as the 'cosmic manifestation') is never separate from God. God always exercises supreme control over his creation. Sometimes this control is directly exercised, but most of the time it is indirect, through his different potencies or energies (Prakrti). In Mundaka Upanishad verse 1.1.7, examples are given of a spider and its web; earth and plants that come forth and hair on the body of human being.[9]

"One who knows God knows that the impersonal conception and personal conception are simultaneously present in everything and that there is no contradiction. Therefore Lord Caitanya established His sublime doctrine: acintya bheda-and-abheda-tattva -- simultaneous oneness and difference." (A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)[4] An analogy often used as an explanation in this context in the relationship between the Sun and the Sunshine.[10] For example, both the sun and sunshine are part of the same reality, but there is a great difference between having a beam of sunshine in your room, and being in close proximity to the sun itself. Qualitatively the Sun and the Sunshine are not different, but as quantities they are very different. This analogy is applied to the living beings and God - the Jiva is qualitatively similar to the Supreme being, but does not share God's qualities to an infinite extent, as would the Personality of Godhead himself.[11] Thus there is a difference between the souls and the Supreme Lord.

The essence of Achintya Bheda Abheda is summarized as ten root principles called dasa mula.[12]

  1. The statements of amnaya (scripture) are the chief proof. By these statements the following nine topics are taught.
  2. Krishna is the Supreme Absolute Truth.
  3. Krishna is endowed with all energies.
  4. Krishna is the source of all rasa- flavor, quality, or spiritual rapture/emotions.
  5. The jivas (individual souls) are all separated parts of the Lord.
  6. In the bound state (non-liberated) the jivas are under the influence of matter, due to their tatastha (marginal) nature.
  7. In the liberated state the jivas are free from the influence of matter.
  8. The jivas and the material world are both different from and identical to the Lord.
  9. Pure devotion is the only way to attain liberation.
  10. Pure love of Krishna is the ultimate goal.

Difference in concept to Advaita Vedanta

It is clearly distinguished from the concept of anirvacaniya (inexpressible) of Advaita Vedanta. There is a clear difference between the two concepts as the two ideas arise for different reasons. Advaita concept is related to the ontological status of the world, whereas both Svayam Bhagavan and his shaktis (in Lord himself and his powers) are empirically real, and they are different from each other, but at the same time they are the same. Yet, this does not negate the reality of both.[1][13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-40548-5.pp. 47-52
  2. ^ Kaviraja, K.G. Sri Caitanya-caritamrita. Bengali text, translation, and commentary by AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.Madhya 20.108-109 Archived 11 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine "It is the living entity's constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Krishna because he is the marginal energy of Krishna and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord, like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire."
  3. ^ Kṛṣṇa Upaniṣad 1.25: ...na bhinnam. nā bhinnamābhirbhinno na vai vibhuḥ
  4. ^ a b Prabhupada, A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami (1972). Bhagavad-gita as it is. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Los Angeles, Calif. ISBN 9780912776804.7.8 Archived 19 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Additional information". Krishna.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2002. Retrieved 16 April 2008. "Lord Chaitanya taught that as spirit souls we are part of God and thus we are not different with Him in quality, and yet at the same time we are also different from Him in quantity. This is called acintya-bheda-abheda-tattva, inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference."
  6. ^ Satsvarupa, dasa Goswami (1976). Readings in Vedit Literature: The Tradition Speaks for Itself. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. pp. 240 pages. ISBN 0-912776-88-9.
  7. ^ "Additional information". Tatfoundation. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008. "This interpretation of the Upanishads, that the individual soul and God are absolutely non-different, is what distinguishes advaita from other forms of Vedanta."
  8. ^ "Additional information". dvaita.org. Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008. "Dvaita,... asserts that the difference between the individual soul or Jiva, and the Creator, or Ishvara, is eternal and real"
  9. ^ yathorṇa-nābhiḥ sṛjate gṛhṇate ca yathā pṛthivyām oṣadhayaḥ sambhavanti yathā sataḥ puruṣāt keśa-lomāni tathākṣarāt sambhavatīha viśvam - Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 1.1.7
  10. ^ Prabhupada, A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami (1988). Srimad Bhagavatam. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. SB. 4.31.16 Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine "One may be in the sunshine, but he is not on the sun itself."
  11. ^ Kaviraja, K.G. Sri Caitanya-caritamrita. Bengali text, translation, and commentary by AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Madhya 6.163 "Qualitatively the living entity and the Supreme Lord are one, but in quantity they are different"
  12. ^ Thakura, B. (1993). Jaiva dharma: The universal religion (K. Das, Trans.). Los Angeles, CA: Krishna Institute.
  13. ^ S. Devadas Pillai, ed. (1997). Indian Sociology Through Ghurye: A Dictionary. Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books. p. 403. ISBN 81-7154-807-5.
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