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Acheng, Harbin

Acheng
阿城区
Location of Acheng in Harbin
Location of Acheng in Harbin
Harbin in Heilongjiang
Harbin in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 45°32′12″N 126°58′02″E / 45.5368°N 126.9671°E / 45.5368; 126.9671
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHeilongjiang
Sub-provincial cityHarbin
Subdivisions9 subdistricts
8 towns
1 township
1 ethnic township
SeatJincheng Subdistrict (金城街道)
Area
 • Total2,452.1 km2 (946.8 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[2]
 • Total544,514
 • Density220/km2 (580/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
1503XX
Area code0451
Acheng, Harbin
Traditional Chinese阿城
Simplified Chinese阿城
Manchu name
RomanizationAlchuka

Acheng District (Manchu Language: Alcuka Hoton) is one of nine districts of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, covering part of the southeastern suburbs. The district was approved to establish from the former Acheng City (阿城市) by the Chinese State Council on August 15, 2006.[3] As of 2010, it had a population of 596,856 residing in an area of 2,680 km2 (1,030 sq mi)[note 1],[1] and is 29 km (18 mi) southeast of downtown Harbin, 190 km (120 mi) north of Jilin City, and around 50 km (31 mi) south of the Songhua River. It lies within the basin of and until 1909 was considered synonymous with the Ashi River[5] which gave its name to the Jurchen Jin Dynasty. The district administers nine subdistricts, eight towns, one township, and one ethnic township. It borders Daowai District to the north, Bin County to the northeast, Shangzhi to the southeast, and Wuchang to the south, Shuangcheng District to the west, and Pingfang and Xiangfang Districts to the northwest.

History

Acheng was known to medieval China as Huining Prefecture, an area of Shangjing. Its eponymous seat served as the first capital of the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1122–1234) and served as a subsidiary capital from 1173 until their conquest by the Mongolian Empire.[5] There is currently a museum at the site, about 2 km (1.2 mi) south of the Acheng urban area.

Acheng County was established in 1909. It was designated a county-level city in 1987 and turned into a district of Harbin on October 9, 2006.[6]

Climate

Climate data for Acheng (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
9.3
(48.7)
19.8
(67.6)
29.9
(85.8)
34.7
(94.5)
39.2
(102.6)
36.3
(97.3)
35.5
(95.9)
30.6
(87.1)
26.8
(80.2)
18.0
(64.4)
8.5
(47.3)
39.2
(102.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −12.2
(10.0)
−6.3
(20.7)
2.8
(37.0)
13.8
(56.8)
21.3
(70.3)
26.3
(79.3)
27.9
(82.2)
26.5
(79.7)
21.5
(70.7)
12.4
(54.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−10.0
(14.0)
10.3
(50.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −18.2
(−0.8)
−12.9
(8.8)
−3.1
(26.4)
7.4
(45.3)
15.0
(59.0)
20.7
(69.3)
23.1
(73.6)
21.4
(70.5)
15.1
(59.2)
6.2
(43.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
−15.4
(4.3)
4.5
(40.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −23.4
(−10.1)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−8.9
(16.0)
1.0
(33.8)
8.7
(47.7)
15.3
(59.5)
18.6
(65.5)
16.8
(62.2)
9.3
(48.7)
0.7
(33.3)
−9.9
(14.2)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
Record low °C (°F) −37.5
(−35.5)
−38.5
(−37.3)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−13.0
(8.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
4.5
(40.1)
8.8
(47.8)
7.2
(45.0)
−4.5
(23.9)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−28.8
(−19.8)
−35.2
(−31.4)
−38.5
(−37.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.7
(0.15)
5.0
(0.20)
11.4
(0.45)
20.7
(0.81)
58.6
(2.31)
94.5
(3.72)
143.2
(5.64)
114.7
(4.52)
57.4
(2.26)
27.4
(1.08)
14.9
(0.59)
7.5
(0.30)
559
(22.03)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4.9 3.9 5.9 7.1 11.7 13.7 14.5 12.9 9.6 7.1 6.2 6.4 103.9
Average snowy days 8.6 7.1 8.0 3.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 2.3 8.0 10.2 47.4
Average relative humidity (%) 73 67 58 50 55 67 78 80 72 64 67 73 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 173.3 198.5 236.2 233.4 245.5 247.1 227.7 223.3 231.6 196.8 157.7 152.5 2,523.6
Percent possible sunshine 61 67 64 57 53 53 49 52 62 59 56 57 58
Source: China Meteorological Administration[7][8]

Population

Year Urban population Total population
1989[5] 188,600
1994[1] 219,500 631,700
2010 596,856

Administrative divisions

Acheng is divided into fifteen subdistricts and four towns:[9][10]

Subdistricts:

  • Jincheng Subdistrict (金城街道), Jindou Subdistrict (金都街道), Tongcheng Subdistrict (通城街道), Hedong Subdistrict (河东街道), Ashenhe Subdistrict (阿什河街道), Sheli Subdistrict (舍利街道), Xinli Subdistrict (新利街道), Shuangfeng Subdistrict (双丰街道), Yuquan Subdistrict (玉泉街道), Xiaoling Subdistrict (小岭街道), Yagou Subdistrict (亚沟街道), Jiaojie Subdistrict (交界街道), Liaodian Subdistrict (料甸街道), Feiketu Subdistrict (蜚克图街道), Yangshu Subdistrict (杨树街道)

Towns:

  • Pingshan (平山镇), Songfengshan (松峰山镇), Hongxing (红星镇), Jinlongshan (金龙山镇)

Commerce

The area is rich in mineral resources, including sources of rock, volcanic rock, granite, molybdenum, zinc, lead, iron,[1] and copper.

The agricultural strengths of the area are grain production and cattle.[1] Grain production is strong, having produced 33,100 tons of grain in 2002; much of this grain is essential in feeding the important city of Harbin.

Acheng is a major industrial area for Heilongjiang, with over 300 types of enterprises, including textile,[1] electromechanics, food, building materials[1] (especially brickworks), metallurgy, breweries fueled by the local grain, sugar refineries, a flax plant,[5] iron, steel,[1] and the production of medicine. In 1996 a new technology industrial development zone was created on the western side of the city to encourage the development of high technology, export-oriented industry.

Tourism is also a growing part of the local economy. Acheng is located on the popular tourist route serving Harbin, the Yabuli Ski Resort, Jingpo Lake, and Xingkai Lake. A number of historic and nature reserves in the area also attract visitors.

Transport

Acheng District is a 50 km (31 mi) drive from Harbin Taiping International Airport.

The Harbin–Suifenhe Railway (part of the original Chinese Eastern Railway) passes through the district. There are over twenty commuter rail lines in the rural area. The station is Acheng Railway Station.

G10 Suifenhe–Manzhouli Expressway and China National Highway 301 both connect the district to downtown Harbin.

People of note

  • Huang Taihua: artist born in Acheng (1947), director of the Academy of Fine Arts of Acheng, director of the Heilongjiang Artists Association.
  • Zhao Weichen: President of China Unicom, born in Acheng (1929)

Notes

  1. ^ Some sources give an area of 2,452.1 km2 (946.8 sq mi).[4]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Cohen 1998, p. 12
  2. ^ 全国各县市区人口排名 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2022-01-05.
  3. ^ 国务院关于同意黑龙江省调整哈尔滨市部分行政区划的批复(国函〔2006〕73号) (in Simplified Chinese). gov.cn. 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  4. ^ Ming 2011
  5. ^ a b c d Hoiberg 2010, p. 1
  6. ^ 哈尔滨日报 (2006). 哈尔滨市撤销阿城市 设立阿城区_振兴东北 (in Chinese). 哈尔滨日报. Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
  7. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  8. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  9. ^ Anon 2012[dead link]
  10. ^ "国家统计局 2019" (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 2021-12-07.

Bibliography

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Acheng, Harbin
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