For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Abaza family.

Abaza family

Abaza (Arabic: أباظة)
абаза
Noble family
CountryEgypt
EtymologyAbaza people and Abaza language
Place of originAbazinia, Karachay-Cherkessia and Abkhazia
Foundedc.1700-1750
FounderAbaza (ethnonym of matriarch), Sheikh of the Arabs Hassan Pasha Abaza (modern founding father)
TitlesPasha, Bek or Bey, Hanim or Khanum, Effendi
Style(s)Sahib-ul-Ma'ali or Sahibat-ul-Ma'ali (His or Her Excellency)
Estate(s)Ezbet Abaza, Ezbet Ateya Abaza, Ezbet Desouky Abaza, Izbat al Abaziyyah, Ezbet Ismail Abaza, parts of Sharqia (main historical stronghold) and Beheira, parts of Kafr Abaza, Minya al-Qamh, and Amreet.

The Abaza Family (Arabic: الأسرة الأباظية or عائلة أباظة, Egyptian Arabic: عيلة أباظة, aliases: آل أباظة) is an Egyptian aristocratic family of maternal[1] Abazin Circassian origin.

"Deeply rooted in Egyptian society...and in the history of the country", it has had an influence from the late 18th century to modern times.[2][3]

The family is known for having produced literary and cultural figures, nobles, officials, technocrats, governors, and politicians under the Muhammad Ali dynasty in the 19th and early 20th century, and for retaining their cultural and political clout during the republican period in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Their primary stronghold is the Sharqia Governorate, where they originally settled in Egypt, although their influence, governorships, and land holdings extended to other areas in the Nile Delta.[4][5][6]

The Abaza family contributed to modern Arabic and Egyptian culture, literature, academia, and art through the works of journalist and political activist Fekry Pasha Abaza, author Desouky Bey Abaza, poet Aziz Pasha Abaza, novelist Tharwat Abaza, sociologist Mona Abaza, actor Rushdy Abaza, director Othman Abaza, among others.[7][8]

While no individual Abaza has been ruler of Egypt but rather part of the cultural, intellectual, social, technocratic, and political elite, some Egyptian media have referred to them as one of the "families that rule the country" and as "Egypt's oldest parliamentary dynasty". They are known as "the family of the pashas" for having produced Egypt's largest number of nobles.[9][10][11][12][13]

They are thought to number in the many thousands with some sources stating numbers as high as 50,000 members, another two sources states some 8,000 members.[10][12][14][15][16]

However, these numbers are highly unreliable as no censuses of Circassian communities in Egypt exist among a general “lack in demographic data on minorities in Egypt”.[17]

Overview, origin, and name

Sources indicate that the Abaza family was well established in the Nile Delta by the late 18th century especially in Sharqia.They took – or were given – the last name 'Abaza'.[18]

A belief among the Abaza family is that they were named after "a beloved grandmother ... or her place of birth". This maternal ancestor is thought to have married the head of the powerful al-Ayed family before the reign of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, (also spelled 'al-Aydeh', Arabic:العائد, Egyptian Arabic: العايدي).[18]

As narrated in "family tradition" the "marriage was during the reign of the Circassian" Mamluks.[19] However some historians suspect it more likely that the marriage occurred under Ottoman rule [20] but note that under Ottoman rule Circassian Mamluks continued to act as governors of the country.

David E. Millis writes that the al-Ayed/Aydeh clan trace "their origin back to the Yemenese contingents of the initial Islamic conquerors of Egypt... [and] the ancient tribal confederation of Judham". Ibn Khaldun wrote that they originate from Kahlan.[21][22] Historian al-Maqrizi agrees that al-Ayed/Aydeh descend from Banu Judham.[23]

The Abaza family itself had "long-established economic and political clout in Egypt".[24][25]

With time, "after the marriage" people began to "distinguish between Awlad al-Aydeh [Children of al-Aydeh] and Awlad al-Abazyya [Children of the Abaza Lady]" and her eldest son began to be called "Ibn al-Abazyya [Son of the Abaza Lady]". This was "the beginning of the split between the two groups" into two distinct families or clans.[26][27]

Thus, the initial matriarchal founder of the family is only known as 'Abaza', and her personal name is lost to history. It is rare but not unknown for a Muslim family to be named after a woman but the family's name fits with historical Muslim practices of naming people and families after places of origin or ethnicities. [28][29] It is an example of a laqab,[1] a type of Arabic name and of an ethnonym, the name of a people or ethnic group. The non-Abaza patriarch who married the Abazin matriarch was named Muhammed el-Ayedi (محمد العايدي).[1]

Abazas in Egypt are "virtually all descendants" of 19th century figures like Shiekh of the Arabs Hassan Pasha Abaza and his brother Shiekh Boghdady Pasha Abaza and "they maybe considered as constituting one family".[30] However, we should caution that with such old multi-generational groups it is difficult to rule out minor, undocumented, or unknown branches.

History and rise

Aziz Pasha Abaza

Reuven Aharonia reports that despite the "centralized nature of Muhammed Ali's regime", the integration of local elites in the state's administration was part of his governing policy. The provincial elites were "given lands" integrating the new system with existing "local interests" and "one instance of this" was the Abaza family.[31]

The monarchy allowed in certain instances elites "bequeath their posts to their sons". For example, al-Sayed Pasha Abaza "inherited the position of nizar qism from "his father Hassan Abaza".[32]

Hassan Pasha Abaza is widely considered to be the modern founding father of the family due to heading the family at the time of their modern ascendance. He was called Sheikh of the Arabs[33], rare in this exalted long-form, it derives from the ancient honorific title Sheikh given to a variety of people including the heads of sufficiently influential families or tribes regardless of ethnic origin.[34] As mentioned above, Hassan Pasha Abaza was also the Shiekh el Balad (Sheikh of the Town/Province or “chief of the city”) of the province of Sharqia.[35][6][36]

His brother Sheikh Boghdady Pasha Abaza, along with Hassan Pasha, served in Ibrahim Pasha's Majlis making the Abazas the only family to hold two seats at the same time and starting their tradition as a parliamentary dynasty.[18]

The monarchy had endowed the family with more villages and lands allowing the Abazas to flourish.[18] Their lands extended beyond their Sharqia stronghold to the Beheira Governate, for example "Sayed Pasha Abaza mudir [governor] of Beheira Province left some 6,000 feddan....in 1875-1876" to his descendants.[5] Their influence further extended to the Nile Delta provinces of Al-Qalyubia, Monufia, and Dakahlia.[4]

Fekry Pasha Abaza

On one occasion, during the accession of the young King Farouk, the Abaza family "solicited palace authorities to permit the royal train to stop briefly at one of their villages", so that "the king could partake in refreshments which were offered in a large, magnificently ornamented tent they had erected at the train station".[37][38]

After the 1952 removal of King Farouk of Egypt, several Abazas lost feudal lands following the Egyptian land reform.[39]

The family cannot be associated with a single political stance because in the early 20th century it decided to permit all members to hold any political position and run for office with any party with the caveat that "no two Abazas [can] run against each other". In the rare cases where two Abazas ran in an election against each other the rule is "to put all support behind the stronger [candidate]" and "no other rules exist" beyond a general dictum of "supporting each other".[1]

This led to situations where one Abaza was a minister in the governing regime and another was the opposition leader, such as in the final Mubrarak government with Amin Abaza as Minister of Agriculture and Mahmoud Abaza as opposition leader (see below).

The family had its own football team competing with Egypt's major clubs in the early half of the 20th century and its own journal.[40] Their most famous wins were covered in English media in 1916 and 1917 with two reported wins against Qatar.[16]

Contemporary situation

The family has had members in almost every Egyptian parliament, mostly in Sharqia districts, their historical stronghold. A famous 21st-century incident included the family's 2005 winning challenge to Gamal Mubarak's and the Mubarak regime's candidate in a Sharqia district with the former New Wafd Party opposition leader Mahmoud Abaza. Family members also regularly feature in Egyptian cabinets and hold minister, deputy minister, assistant minister and other government and technocratic positions in state institutions. They have also held governorships many times in both the monarchical and current periods, especially in the Nile delta. [41][42][43][44][45]

For decades, the family had a political monopoly over several districts.[9]

Several villages in the Nile Delta are named after members of the family, mainly in Sharqia. At least one city square in Zagazig and another in Cairo are named 'Abaza'. Many streets and institutions in the country are named after members of the family including at least one government school named after Aziz Pasha Abaza and numerous 'ezbas' (farming estates and villages), in the Sharqia Governorate.[46][47]

In the 2015 parliamentary elections, three members of the Abaza family won seats in the House of Representatives and this was criticized by some in the media referring to their win as "dynastic heredity".[48][49]

Forbes lists Hussein Abaza as one of the top Arab CEOs in the world, for heading the Commercial International Bank.[50]

Another family member, Hussein Mohammed Abaza serves as an international consultant for sustainable development and green economy in the Egyptian government and as an advisor to the Minister of the Environment.[51] He also is a member of the government's National Initiative for Green Projects.[52]

In 2014, the family sued Sada Elbalad TV for the creation of a children's cartoon named 'Abaza', and the program was forced off the air.[53] In the same year Egyptian satellite channel CBC Two aired a one-hour documentary about the family.[54]

Abaza marriages into other aristocratic families, and in the republican period, other elite Egyptian families, are common and included marriages with the families of former intelligence chief and Vice President of Egypt Omar Suleiman, former Public Prosecutor Abd-al-Mageed Mahmoud, the Sameika noble family, among many others.[55][56][57]

A lentil dish attributed to the family is known in the country as "'ads abazy" (Arabic: عدس أباظي).[58]

They are also known for producing many CEOs and owners of businesses and corporations.[16]

Notable members

  • Maher Abaza was the longest-serving minister in Egyptian history. He was the Minister of Electricity and Energy and is credited with connecting the vast majority of the country's rural areas to the electric grid and also served as a member of parliament.[10]
Rushdy Abaza
Amina Tharwat Abaza
  • Mona Abaza was one of Egypt's most prominent sociologists, she died in 2021 and her research interests "ranged from women in rural Egypt, the relation between Islam and the West, urban consumer culture, to Egyptian painting and the Arab Spring".[64]
  • Some other notable members of the family include Mohammad Abdel Rahman Hussein Abaza who was an author of a series of publications on the struggle of the Egyptians against the British. He was also personally involved in the liberation campaign against the British occupation.[67] Othman Abaza who was amongst the first directors in Egyptian and Arab broadcasting.[68] Fouad Pasha Abaza, a businessman who held several official positions, notably sent the only message that King Farouk of Egypt received on the royal yacht as he was exiled from Egypt.[69] And Amin Abaza who was minister of agriculture under the final Mubarak government.[70]

Pictures

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d حصلنا على لقب أباظة من خلال سيدة شركسية, archived from the original on 24 February 2024, retrieved 5 September 2022
  2. ^ "عائلة أباظة: تاريخ طويل وأثر عميق في مصر". 3 January 2024. Archived from the original on 19 February 2024. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  3. ^ Rushdi Abaza, archived from the original on 27 June 2023, retrieved 25 February 2024
  4. ^ a b "العائلة الأباظية ودورها فى الحياة البرلمانية المصرية". الأسبوع (in Arabic). Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  5. ^ a b Springborg, Robert (11 November 2016). Family, Power, and Politics in Egypt: Sayed Bey Mare--His Clan, Clients, and Cohorts. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-1-5128-0754-7. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  6. ^ a b Aharoni, Reuven (12 March 2007). The Pasha's Bedouin: Tribes and State in the Egypt of Mehemet Ali, 1805-1848. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-26821-4. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  7. ^ ""الأباظية".. الأسرة التي قدمت نجوماً في الأدب والفن". Archived from the original on 2 April 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  8. ^ "Tributes to Mona Abaza (1959-2021)". Archived from the original on 19 February 2024. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  9. ^ a b Timor, Ahmed (10 January 2016). "Month for Families in History of Egyptian Parliament" (in Arabic). Egyptian families. Archived from the original on 11 June 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d الكاتب, الكاتب (28 September 1998). "Arabs or Circassians, or a combination of both? Alobazah families in Egypt" (in Arabic). Al Hayat News. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  11. ^ "عائلات تحكم مصر.. 1 ـ "الأباظية" عائلة الباشوات". 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 28 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  12. ^ a b c "Rushdi Abaza". AlexCinema. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  13. ^ "عائلات ورثت البرلمان". Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  14. ^ Hesham Yehia (14 March 2020), "أسرار "الأباظية" فى جريدة شهرية؟! - الكتاب الذهبي جريدة زوراليوسف", golden book.rosaelyoussef, archived from the original on 9 September 2022, retrieved 9 September 2022
  15. ^ Springborg, Robert (11 November 2016). Family, Power, and Politics in Egypt: Sayed Bey Mare--His Clan, Clients, and Cohorts. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-1-5128-0754-7. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  16. ^ a b c "Hindawi". Archived from the original on 22 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  17. ^ Messieh, Nancy (26 June 2014). "Egypt's Minorities Remain Ostracized". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  18. ^ a b c d Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi (12 January 1984). Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 9780521289689. Archived from the original on 24 February 2024. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  19. ^ The Pasha's Bedouin: Tribes and State in the Egypt of Mehemet Ali, 1805-1848. Routledge. 12 March 2007. ISBN 978-1-134-26821-4. Archived from the original on 27 February 2024. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  20. ^ "العائلة الأباظية ودورها فى الحياة البرلمانية المصرية". الأسبوع (in Arabic). Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  21. ^ "الأسرة الأباظية | السودان من التاريخ القديم إلى رحلة البعثة المصرية (الجزء الثالث) | مؤسسة هنداوي". Archived from the original on 22 February 2024. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  22. ^ Dividing the Nile: Egypt's Economic Nationalists in the Sudan 1918-56. American University in Cairo Press. December 2014. ISBN 978-1-61797-619-3. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  23. ^ "العائلة الأباظية ودورها فى الحياة البرلمانية المصرية". الأسبوع (in Arabic). Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  24. ^ Dividing the Nile: Egypt's Economic Nationalists in the Sudan 1918-56. American University in Cairo Press. December 2014. ISBN 978-1-61797-619-3. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  25. ^ The Pasha's Bedouin: Tribes and State in the Egypt of Mehemet Ali, 1805-1848. Routledge. 12 March 2007. ISBN 978-1-134-26821-4. Archived from the original on 27 February 2024. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  26. ^ The Pasha's Bedouin: Tribes and State in the Egypt of Mehemet Ali, 1805-1848. Routledge. 12 March 2007. ISBN 978-1-134-26821-4. Archived from the original on 27 February 2024. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  27. ^ "الأسرة الأباظية | السودان من التاريخ القديم إلى رحلة البعثة المصرية (الجزء الثالث) | مؤسسة هنداوي". Archived from the original on 22 February 2024. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  28. ^ Mohammadi, Adeel (2016). "The Ambiguity of Maternal Filiation (nasab) in Early and Medieval Islam". The Graduate Journal of Harvard Divinity School (11): 52–68. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 3 February 2024.
  29. ^ Pedzisai Mashiri, "Terms of Address in Shona: A Sociolinguistic Approach", Zambezia, XXVI (i), pp. 93–110, 1999
  30. ^ Springborg, Robert (11 November 2016). Family, Power, and Politics in Egypt: Sayed Bey Mare--His Clan, Clients, and Cohorts. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-1-5128-0754-7. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  31. ^ Aharoni, Reuven (12 March 2007). The Pasha's Bedouin: Tribes and State in the Egypt of Mehemet Ali, 1805-1848. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-26821-4. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  32. ^ Aharoni, Reuven (12 March 2007). The Pasha's Bedouin: Tribes and State in the Egypt of Mehemet Ali, 1805-1848. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-26821-4. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  33. ^ "العائلة الأباظية ودورها فى الحياة البرلمانية المصرية". الأسبوع (in Arabic). Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  34. ^ "Sheikh | Meaning, Title, Significance, & History | Britannica". www.britannica.com. 25 January 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  35. ^ "Shaykh al-balad | Egyptian official | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 11 December 2023. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  36. ^ "Arabia, Arabs, and "Arabic" in Greek Documents from Egypt", New Frontiers of Arabic Papyrology, BRILL, pp. 1–27, 1 January 2017, retrieved 3 March 2024
  37. ^ Yunan Labib Rizk, "The making of a king", Archived 2008-08-14 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram Weekly 762, 29 September – 5 October 2005.
  38. ^ Rosten, David B. (3 December 2015). The Last Cheetah of Egypt: A Narrative History of Egyptian Royalty from 1805 to 1953. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4917-7939-2. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  39. ^ Springborg, Robert (11 November 2016). Family, Power, and Politics in Egypt: Sayed Bey Mare--His Clan, Clients, and Cohorts. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-1-5128-0754-7. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  40. ^ Ryzova, Lucie (18 September 2017). The Age of the Efendiyya: Passages to Modernity in National-Colonial Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-256373-6. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  41. ^ "العائلة الأباظية ودورها فى الحياة البرلمانية المصرية". الأسبوع (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  42. ^ "عائلة أباظة تتحدى التاريخ". برلمانى. 31 October 2015. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  43. ^ "أشهر العائلات تحت قبة البرلمان.. "أباظة" و"محيى الدين" و"سراج الدين" بدأت الطريق منذ نشأة مجلس النواب.. و"طلعت مصطفى" و"السادات" تتطلعان لاستكمال مسيرة الآباء". اليوم السابع (in Arabic). 29 August 2015. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  44. ^ "ننشر أهم العائلات البرلمانية في الشرقية.. "الأباظية" الأعرق لتأثيرها في الحياة السياسية والفنية والإذاعية.. لم يخل مجلس شعب أو شورى من وجود أحد أفرادها". www.albawabhnews.com. 12 January 2015. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  45. ^ "عائلات تحكم مصر.. الأباظية نجم يلمع في عالم السياسية.. التاريخ يتجاهل طوبار الدقهلية.. الهجرة تلقي بسيف النصر في المنيا.. الألفي وخضير ملحمة وطنية ببورسعيد.. ومحمد كريم يرسم ملامح التحرير بالإسكندرية". صوت الأمة. 16 February 2016. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  46. ^ "Log in or sign up to view". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2021. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  47. ^ "ezba", Wiktionary, the free dictionary, 28 August 2022, archived from the original on 19 February 2024, retrieved 29 February 2024
  48. ^ Jamal, Mohammed (18 October 2015). "Vote for the "Family" The major features of the first day of elections" (in Arabic). Huffington Post Arabic. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  49. ^ Diab, Goni (29 September 2015). "عائلات بارزة تدفع بأبنائها في الانتخابات لحفظ الميراث النيابي" (in Arabic). Masral Arabia. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  50. ^ Mughal, Waqar. "Hussein Abaza - Top 100 CEOs 2023 in the Middle East". Forbes Lists. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  51. ^ عفيفي, نرمين (21 August 2022). "حسين أباظة: الاستثمارات صديقة البيئة ليست عائقا للتنمية". الوطن (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  52. ^ "رسميا.. اختيار حسين أباظة عضوًا للجنة التحكيم بالمبادرة الوطنية للمشروعات الخضراء". المستقبل الاخضر (in Arabic). 10 August 2022. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  53. ^ Shakir, Mustafa (7 June 2014). "Adli Abaza suing the 'echo of the country' due to the series using his family name" (in Arabic). Albawabh News. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  54. ^ الموجز (19 April 2013). "بالصور : حكاية بنات عمر سليمان فى عهد الرئيس مرسى | قضايا وتحقيقات | الموجز". www.elmogaz.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  55. ^ "عبد المجيد محمود". الجزيرة نت (in Arabic). Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  56. ^ peoples.ru. "Биография Династия Абаза". www.peoples.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  57. ^ "طريقة عمل عدس أباظة". موضوع. Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  58. ^ "Tharwat Abaza, 75; Egyptian Newspaper Columnist, Writer". L.A. Times. 19 March 2002. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  59. ^ Jalal, Maan (3 August 2022). "Rushdy Abaza: remembering the prolific actor who played a starring role in Arab cinema". The National. Archived from the original on 19 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  60. ^ "DNB, Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek". 5 May 2020. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2024.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  61. ^ "وجيه أباظة". المعرفة (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 5 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  62. ^ Springborg, Robert (11 November 2016). Family, Power, and Politics in Egypt: Sayed Bey Mare--His Clan, Clients, and Cohorts. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-1-5128-0754-7. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  63. ^ "Tributes to Mona Abaza (1959-2021)". globaldialogue.isa-sociology.org (in European Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  64. ^ Worth, Robert F. (21 November 2010). "Activist Relies on Islam to Fight for Animal Rights". The New York Times. NY Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  65. ^ "Society for Protection of Animal Rights in Egypt". SPARE. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  66. ^ مذكرات وجيه أباظة (in Arabic).
  67. ^ "عثمان أباظة", ويكيبيديا (in Arabic), 15 May 2023, archived from the original on 29 February 2024, retrieved 29 February 2024
  68. ^ "Al Moqatel - ثورة 23 يوليه، في مصر". 23 October 2017. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 29 February 2024.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  69. ^ "مصر: منع سفر عبيد والفقي وحسني و9 رجال أعمال - CNNArabic.com". 19 January 2014. Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 29 February 2024.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)

Further Reading

  • Springborg, Robert (11 November 2016). Family, Power, and Politics in Egypt: Sayed Bey Mare--His Clan, Clients, and Cohorts. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-1-5128-0754-7.
  • Goldschmidt, Arthur (2000). Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-229-8.
  • Kilani, Nashwa Abd Alqader (2016). عائلة أباظة فى مصر ” الدور الأقتصادى – الاجتماعى – السياسى 1952-1891 – دراسة في دور العائلات المصرية فى المجتمع المصرى “ [The Abaza Family In Egypt `The Economic - Social - Political Role (1891-1952) - A Study Of The Role Of Egyptian Families In Egyptian Society`] (in Arabic). مركز المحروسة للنشر والخدمات الصحفية والمعلومات. ISBN 9789773136014
  • Blattner, Elwyn James; Blattner, James Elwyn (1959). Who's who in Egypt and the Middle East. Paul Barbey Press.
  • Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi (12 January 1984). Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 9780521289689. Archived from the original on 24 February 2024. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  • أباظة, عفاف عزيز (24 May 2021). زوجي ثروت أباظة (in Arabic). Hindawi Foundation. ISBN 978-1-5273-1839-7.
  • Imām, ʻAbd Allāh (1995). وجيه أباظة: صفحات من النضال الوطني (in Arabic). د.ن.،.
  • ʻAṭṭār, Salwá (1989). التغييرات الاجتماعية فى عهد محمد على (in Arabic). دار النهضة العربية. ISBN 978-977-04-0454-6.
  • اباظة, عفاف عزيز (1974). ابى عزيز اباظة (in Arabic). Kotobarabia.com.
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Abaza family
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?