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1996 Spanish general election

1996 Spanish general election

← 1993 3 March 1996 2000 →

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 257) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered32,531,833 4.8%
Turnout25,172,058 (77.4%)
1.0 pp
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader José María Aznar Felipe González Julio Anguita
Party PP PSOE IU
Leader since 4 September 1989 28 September 1979 12 February 1989
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Madrid
Last election 142 seats, 35.4%[a] 159 seats, 38.8% 18 seats, 9.6%
Seats won 156 141 21
Seat change 14 18 3
Popular vote 9,716,006 9,425,678 2,639,774
Percentage 38.8% 37.6% 10.5%
Swing 3.4 pp 1.2 pp 0.9 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Leader Joaquim Molins Iñaki Anasagasti José Carlos Mauricio
Party CiU EAJ/PNV CC
Leader since 1 February 1995 1986 1996
Leader's seat Barcelona Biscay Las Palmas
Last election 17 seats, 4.9% 5 seats, 1.2% 4 seats, 0.9%
Seats won 16 5 4
Seat change 1 0 0
Popular vote 1,151,633 318,951 220,418
Percentage 4.6% 1.3% 0.9%
Swing 0.3 pp 0.1 pp 0.0 pp

Election results by Congress of Deputies constituency

Prime Minister before election

Felipe González
PSOE

Prime Minister after election

José María Aznar
PP

The 1996 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 3 March 1996, to elect the 6th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 257 seats in the Senate.

Ever since forming a minority government after its victory in the 1993 election, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) had been rocked by the unveiling of a string of corruption scandals, including the party's illegal financing, misuse of public funds to pay for undeclared bonuses to party officials and allegations of state terrorism. The 1996 election was triggered following the withdrawal of parliamentary support from Convergence and Union (CiU) to the Socialist government of Felipe González in mid 1995.

The election resulted in the first PSOE defeat in a general election since 1982, but predictions of a landslide of the opposition José María Aznar's People's Party (PP) failed to materialize. The PP had been widely expected to make gains after resounding wins in the 1994 European Parliament election and 1995 local and regional elections, with polls suggesting Aznar winning an outright overall majority or coming short of it by few seats would be the most likely scenario. Instead, the election turned into the closest result between the two major parties in the Spanish democratic period to date; a PSOE comeback, fueled by a strong 77.4% voter turnout, the highest scored ever since, left the PP leading by just 1.2 percentage points and 290,000 votes, falling 20 seats short of an absolute majority. Julio Anguita's United Left (IU) also failed to meet expectations, despite scoring their best overall result in a general election since the Communist Party of Spain (PCE)'s results in 1979.

At 156 seats, this would be the worst performance for a winning party in the democratic period until the PP's result in the 2015 election. As a consequence of the election result, Aznar was forced to tone down his attacks to Catalan and Basque nationalists in order to garner their support for his investiture. After two months of negotiations, agreements were reached with CiU, the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) and Canarian Coalition (CC), enabling for José María Aznar to become prime minister of a centre-right minority cabinet, marking the end of 13+12 years of Socialist government.

Overview

Electoral system

The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a prime minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive (yet limited in number) functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override.[1][2] Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over 18 years of age and in full enjoyment of their political rights.

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with an electoral threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain, with each being allocated an initial minimum of two seats and the remaining 248 being distributed in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[1][3] The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[4]

As a result of the aforementioned allocation, each Congress multi-member constituency was entitled the following seats:[5]

Seats Constituencies
34 Madrid
31 Barcelona(–1)
16 Valencia
13 Seville(+1)
11 Alicante(+1)
10 Málaga
9 Asturias, Biscay, Cádiz, La Coruña, Murcia
8 Pontevedra
7 Balearics, Córdoba, Granada, Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Zaragoza
6 Badajoz, Guipúzcoa, Jaén, Tarragona
5 Almería, Cáceres, Cantabria, Castellón, Ciudad Real, Girona, Huelva, León, Navarre, Toledo, Valladolid
4 Álava, Albacete, Burgos, La Rioja, Lleida, Lugo(–1), Orense, Salamanca
3 Ávila, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Huesca, Palencia, Segovia, Soria, Teruel, Zamora

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting system, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, IbizaFormentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[1][3]

Election date

The term of each chamber of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of parliament and published on the following day in the Official State Gazette (BOE), with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 6 June 1993, which meant that the legislature's term would expire on 6 June 1997. The election decree was required to be published in the BOE no later than 13 May 1997, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 6 July 1997.[3]

The prime minister had the prerogative to dissolve both chambers at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both chambers were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a prime minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[1] Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate. Still, as of 2024 there has been no precedent of separate elections taking place under the 1978 Constitution.

After Convergence and Union (CiU) withdrew their confidence and supply support to the PSOE-led government in June 1995,[6][7][8] materializing in the 1996 General State Budget being voted down in October,[9][10] Prime Minister Felipe González was forced to trigger an early dissolution of the Cortes Generales and a snap election to be arranged for early 1996, fifteen months ahead of schedule.[11][12]

The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 9 January 1996 after the publication of the dissolution decree in the BOE, setting the election date for 3 March and scheduling for both chambers to reconvene on 27 March.[5]

Background

Economy

The legislature was marked by the international economic crisis of 1992-1993. While the economic situation in Spain since 1985 (coinciding with the accession of Spain into the European Communities) was very favorable and the evolutionary profile of per capita GDP was resembling that of the EU countries, from 1989 the GDP started to decrease markedly and the economy entered a cycle of recession. The five-year period 1985-1989 was characterized by a phase of expansive growth and massive inflow of foreign capital, attracted by high interest rates. Post-1989, however, saw unfavorable economic indicators, and recession and global economic crisis deeply affected unemployment rates.

From 1994, a remarkable recovery phase began, from a recession of 1.1% of GDP in 1993 to a growth rate of 2%. Although the economic situation was difficult, the unemployment rate began a gradual decline, reaching the end of the legislature in 22% after reaching 24% in 1994. On the other hand, the inflation rate fell to 5.5% between 1994 and 1996, public debt stood at 68% and the deficit at 7.1%.

Corruption scandals

The 1993–96 legislature was marked by the uncovering of numerous corruption scandals involving the ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. The eruption of corruption scandals had not been uncommon since the early 1990s, but was in this period when those seemed to affect directly to the incumbent PSOE leadership. These scandals would plague González's government throughout Felipe González's fourth tenure as Prime Minister of Spain.

Roldán scandal

On 23 November 1993, Spanish daily Diario 16 unveiled that Civil Guard Chief Director Luis Roldán had amassed a large patrimony, worth 400 million Pta and a large real estate assets, since assuming office in 1986, which contrasted with his net annual income of 400,000 Pta. Roldán then denounces a media campaign against him and defends the money is of legal origin, but proves unable to show evidence supporting his claims. The accusations lead to his dismissal by the government on 3 December. On 9 March 1994, El Mundo reveals that officers from the Ministry of the Interior had used money from the fondos reservados (Spanish for "reserved funds"), public funds destined to finance the fight against terrorism and drug trafficking and not subject to publicity, justification or external oversight,[13] to make bonus payments to high-ranking officers from the Ministry; Roldán name appeared among those accused of having received such payments. In April, Diario 16 and El Mundo revealed that former President of Navarre Gabriel Urralburu had collected millionary commissions from construction companies in the awarding of public works during his government, with Roldán having also benefitted from it. Evidence now pointed to Roldán having used his office to amass a fortune through fraudulent means, which led to Roldán fleeing the country and in incumbent Interior Minister Antoni Asunción, responsible for monitoring Roldán, resigning as a consequence.[14]

During his time missing, Roldán sent letters admitting the illegalities he had done and accusing other Interior Ministry high-ranking members of also having benefited from the reserved funds and warning that he was willing to "pull the rug out". In a handwritten letter sent to González himself and revealed by El Mundo daily on 17 June 1994, Roldán acknowledged having received a monthly payment of 10 million Pta from Rafael Vera, State Security Director until early 1994. Among those he accused was former Interior Minister José Luis Corcuera (1988–93), but also Prime Minister González, whom he pointed was "aware of everything". In the end, after ten months on the run, Luis Roldán was arrested on 27 February 1995 in Laos amidst claims that he and the Socialist government had reached an agreement in which Roldán would surrender himself in exchange of him being charged with just two crimes out of the seven attributable to him: bribery and embezzlement. This scandal came to be known as the "Laos papers", because the initial governmental version of his capture—that it had been done cooperatively with the Laotian government—was disproved by Laotian authorities. The PSOE government refused to recognize the veracity of these claims, but acknowledged that their initial version was "wrong".[14][15] Roldán would later be convicted for the crimes of bribery, embezzlement, fraud, forgery and tax evasion.[16]

Ibercorp case

Concurrently with the Roldán scandal, it is revealed on 5 April 1994 that former Governor of the Bank of Spain, Mariano Rubio, had a secret bank account in Ibercorp worth 130 million Ptas of undeclared money. Ibercorp had been an investment bank which had been intervened by the Bank of Spain in 1992 due to its involvement in obscure financial operations. Already in February 1992, it had been revealed that Rubio—then Governor of the Bank of Spain—and former Economy Minister Miguel Boyer had concealed from the National Securities Market Commission (CNMV) that both of them possessed stock shares in Ibercorp and used them to amass a fortune. Rubio had denied the accusations in 1992, which nonetheless cost him his post. However, the new revelations in 1994, which resulted in his criminal prosecution, put Felipe González and former Economy Minister Carlos Solchaga—who had backed Rubio in 1992, believing his claims of innocence, and were also ultimately responsible for his naming to the post—in a delicate political situation. Agriculture Minister Vicente Albero was also forced to resign his office in May 1994 after it was unveiled he had also possessed a secret account with undeclared money related to the scandal.[17][18][19]

GAL case

In 1991, two policemen, José Amedo and Michel Domínguez, had been convicted for participating in the Liberation Antiterrorist Groups (GAL), death squads involved in a 'dirty war' against ETA in the 1983–87 period and thought to be secretly financed by the Socialist government. Initially thought to be acting independently, they confessed on 16 December 1994 to judge Baltasar Garzón that a number of former police and Interior Ministry officers were also involved in the GAL, showing evidence supporting their claims. Among those were former Interior Minister José Barrionuevo (1982–88), State Security Directors Julián Sancristóbal (1984–86) and Rafael Vera (1986–94), as well as former Secretary-General of the PSOE in Biscay Ricardo García Damborenea and a number of police officers accused of murder and embezzlement of public funds. Throughout early 1995, those accused except for Barrionuevo were arrested and court-questioned, leading to the 'GAL case' being re-opened by the Spanish National Court on 20 February in order to clarify whether the GAL were financed with money from the reserved funds. Barrionuevo accused Garzón, then instructing the case and who had contested the 1993 general election within the PSOE electoral lists, to be acting motivated by personal revenge against the party after political differences leading to his resignation as deputy in May 1994.[20]

In May to July 1995 some of the defendants accused PM Felipe González of "knowing and allowing such activities", even pointing out that he could have been the person creating and financing the GAL. By 1996, however, the Spanish Supreme Court concluded that there was not proof of González's involvement and that the accusations were based on mere suspicions. Still, former Interior Minister José Barrionuevo and State Security Directors Rafael Vera and Julián Sancristóbal were convicted for the scandal.[20]

Parliamentary composition

The tables below show the composition of the parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.[21][22]

Parties and candidates

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one percent of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election, disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates.[3]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Gov. Ref.
Votes (%) Con. Sen.
PSOE Felipe González Social democracy 38.78% 159 96 checkY [25]
[26]
PP José María Aznar Conservatism
Christian democracy
35.37%[a] 142 93 ☒N [27]
[28]
IU Julio Anguita Socialism
Communism
9.55% 18 0 ☒N
CiU Joaquim Molins Catalan nationalism
Centrism
4.94% 17 10 ☒N
EAJ/PNV
List
Iñaki Anasagasti Basque nationalism
Christian democracy
Conservative liberalism
1.24% 5 3 ☒N
CC
List
José Carlos Mauricio Regionalism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
0.88% 4 5 ☒N
HB
List
Basque independence
Abertzale left
Revolutionary socialism
0.88% 2 1 ☒N
ERC Pilar Rahola Catalan independence
Left-wing nationalism
Social democracy
0.80% 1 0 ☒N
EA
List
Begoña Lasagabaster Basque nationalism
Social democracy
0.55% 1 0 ☒N
UV
List
José María Chiquillo Blaverism
Conservatism
0.48% 1 0 ☒N
BNG Francisco Rodríguez Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
0.54% 0 0 ☒N
EFS Pilar Costa Progressivism Senate New ☒N [29]
PIL Cándido Armas Insularism
Canarian nationalism
Senate New ☒N

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), United Left (IU), The Greens (LV), Nationalist and Ecologist Agreement (ENE) and Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) formed the Ibiza and Formentera in the Senate alliance for the Senate election.[29]

Campaign period

Party slogans

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Ref.
PSOE « España en positivo » "Spain in positive" [30][31]
PP « Con la nueva mayoría » "With the new majority" [30][32][33]
IU « IU decide » "IU decides" [30][34]

Opinion polls

Local regression trend line of poll results from 6 June 1993 to 3 March 1996, with each line corresponding to a political party.


Results

Congress of Deputies

Summary of the 3 March 1996 Congress of Deputies election results
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
People's Party (PP)1 9,716,006 38.79 +3.42 156 +14
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 9,425,678 37.63 –1.15 141 –18
United Left (IU) 2,639,774 10.54 +0.99 21 +3
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,151,633 4.60 –0.34 16 –1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 318,951 1.27 +0.03 5 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 220,418 0.88 ±0.00 4 ±0
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 220,147 0.88 +0.34 2 +2
Popular Unity (HB) 181,304 0.72 –0.16 2 ±0
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 167,641 0.67 –0.13 1 ±0
Andalusian Party (PA)2 134,800 0.54 –0.05 0 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 115,861 0.46 –0.09 1 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 91,575 0.37 –0.11 1 ±0
The European Greens (LVE) 61,689 0.25 –0.54 0 ±0
Aragonese Union (CHA) 49,739 0.20 +0.17 0 ±0
Centrist Union (UC) 44,771 0.18 –1.58 0 ±0
Valencian People's UnionNationalist Bloc (UPV–BN) 26,777 0.11 –0.06 0 ±0
Nationalists of the Balearic Islands (PSM–ENE) 24,644 0.10 +0.01 0 ±0
The Greens–Green Group (LV–GV) 17,177 0.07 New 0 ±0
Convergence of Democrats of Navarre (CDN) 17,020 0.07 New 0 ±0
Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRT)3 14,854 0.06 –0.07 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 14,513 0.06 +0.02 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 13,482 0.05 +0.01 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 12,213 0.05 ±0.00 0 ±0
Authentic Spanish Phalanx (FEA) 12,114 0.05 +0.05 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 12,049 0.05 –0.01 0 ±0
Basque Citizen Initiative (ICV–Gorordo) 11,833 0.05 New 0 ±0
The Greens of Madrid (LVM) 8,483 0.03 New 0 ±0
Extremaduran Coalition (CEx)4 7,312 0.03 –0.03 0 ±0
Majorcan Union (UM) 6,943 0.03 –0.01 0 ±0
Commoners' Land–Castilian Nationalist Party (TC–PNC) 6,206 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
Riojan Party (PR) 6,065 0.02 –0.01 0 ±0
Ecologist Party of Catalonia (PEC) 4,305 0.02 –0.02 0 ±0
Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL) 4,061 0.02 +0.01 0 ±0
Andalusian Nation (NA) 3,505 0.01 New 0 ±0
Alliance for National Unity (AUN) 3,397 0.01 New 0 ±0
Salamanca–Zamora–León–PREPAL (PREPAL) 2,762 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
SOS Nature (SOS) 2,753 0.01 New 0 ±0
Republican Coalition (CR)5 2,744 0.01 –0.02 0 ±0
Popular Front of the Canary Islands (FREPIC) 2,567 0.01 New 0 ±0
Socialist Party of the People of Ceuta (PSPC) 2,365 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Castilla-La Mancha (PRCM) 2,279 0.01 New 0 ±0
Galician People's Front (FPG) 2,065 0.01 New 0 ±0
Independent Socialists of Extremadura (SIEx) 1,678 0.01 New 0 ±0
Madrilenian Independent Regional Party (PRIM) 1,671 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Red–Green Party (PRV) 1,656 0.01 New 0 ±0
Independent Spanish Phalanx (FEI) 1,550 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
New Region (NR) 1,452 0.01 New 0 ±0
Republican Action (AR) 1,237 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Citizen Independent Platform of Catalonia (PICC) 1,229 0.00 New 0 ±0
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 1,023 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Party of El Bierzo (PB) 1,000 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Nationalist Canarian Party (PCN) 722 0.00 New 0 ±0
Alicantine Provincial Union (UPRA) 651 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Democratic Andalusian Unity (UAD) 627 0.00 New 0 ±0
Citizen Democratic Action (ADEC) 598 0.00 New 0 ±0
Voice of the Andalusian People (VDPA) 529 0.00 New 0 ±0
European Nation State (N) 495 0.00 New 0 ±0
Social and Autonomist Liberal Group (ALAS) 402 0.00 New 0 ±0
Balearic Alliance (ABA) 379 0.00 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Guadalajara (PRGU) 338 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Spanish Autonomous League (LAE) 296 0.00 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Social Dynamic (DSA) 265 0.00 New 0 ±0
Party of The People (LG) 243 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Inter-Zamoran Party (PIZ) 215 0.00 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Party of Melilla (PNM) 200 0.00 New 0 ±0
Centrists of the Valencian Community (CCV) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Revolutionary Workers' Party (POR) 0 0.00 –0.03 0 ±0
Party of Self-employed of Spain (PAE) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Tenerife Independent Familiar Groups (AFIT) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 243,345 0.97 +0.17
Total 25,046,276 350 ±0
Valid votes 25,046,276 99.50 +0.04
Invalid votes 125,782 0.50 –0.04
Votes cast / turnout 25,172,058 77.38 +0.94
Abstentions 7,359,775 22.62 –0.94
Registered voters 32,531,833
Sources[35][36]
Footnotes:
Popular vote
PP
38.79%
PSOE
37.63%
IU
10.54%
CiU
4.60%
EAJ/PNV
1.27%
CC
0.88%
BNG
0.88%
HB
0.72%
ERC
0.67%
EA
0.46%
UV
0.37%
Others
2.21%
Blank ballots
0.97%
Seats
PP
44.57%
PSOE
40.29%
IU
6.00%
CiU
4.57%
EAJ/PNV
1.43%
CC
1.14%
BNG
0.57%
HB
0.57%
ERC
0.29%
EA
0.29%
UV
0.29%

Senate

Summary of the 3 March 1996 Senate of Spain election results
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
People's Party (PP)1 26,788,282 39.04 +3.87 112 +19
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 25,865,206 37.70 –1.32 81 –15
United Left (IU) 6,851,023 9.99 +0.52 0 ±0
Convergence and Union (CiU) 3,338,737 4.87 –0.43 8 –2
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 918,692 1.34 +0.04 4 +1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 670,346 0.98 +0.36 0 ±0
Popular Unity (HB) 516,007 0.75 –0.17 0 –1
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 493,480 0.72 +0.35 0 ±0
Andalusian Party (PA)2 415,676 0.61 –0.07 0 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 388,366 0.57 –0.04 1 –4
Basque Solidarity (EA) 337,911 0.49 –0.09 0 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 280,383 0.41 –0.12 0 ±0
Aragonese Union (CHA) 136,157 0.20 +0.16 0 ±0
Centrist Union (UC) 129,432 0.19 –1.63 0 ±0
The European Greens (LVE) 127,576 0.19 –0.69 0 ±0
Valencian People's UnionNationalist Bloc (UPV–BN) 93,337 0.14 –0.07 0 ±0
The Greens–Green Group (LV–GV) 67,439 0.10 New 0 ±0
Convergence of Democrats of Navarre (CDN) 54,016 0.08 New 0 ±0
Nationalists of the Balearic Islands (PSM–ENE) 50,928 0.07 +0.01 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 48,214 0.07 –0.02 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 41,127 0.06 –0.01 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 34,495 0.05 ±0.00 0 ±0
Alliance for National Unity (AUN) 32,451 0.05 New 0 ±0
Basque Citizen Initiative (ICV–Gorordo) 31,632 0.05 New 0 ±0
Extremaduran Coalition (CEx)3 30,213 0.04 –0.05 0 ±0
Authentic Spanish Phalanx (FEA) 27,999 0.04 +0.03 0 ±0
Ecologist Party of Catalonia (PEC) 24,662 0.04 –0.04 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 24,149 0.04 +0.02 0 ±0
Ibiza and Formentera in the Senate (PSOEEUENEERCEV–Eiv) 21,365 0.03 New 1 +1
Riojan Party (PR) 20,172 0.03 –0.01 0 ±0
Commoners' Land–Castilian Nationalist Party (TC–PNC) 20,119 0.03 ±0.00 0 ±0
Majorcan Union (UM) 18,944 0.03 –0.01 0 ±0
Salamanca–Zamora–León–PREPAL (PREPAL) 17,024 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
Republican Coalition (CR)4 15,958 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
Independent Spanish Phalanx (FEI) 14,963 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRT)5 14,618 0.02 –0.05 0 ±0
Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL) 14,362 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
Lanzarote Independents Party (PIL) 13,161 0.02 New 1 +1
The Greens of Madrid (LVM) 13,080 0.02 New 0 ±0
Andalusian Nation (NA) 12,803 0.02 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Party of Castile and León (PANCAL) 10,268 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Party of El Bierzo (PB) 8,641 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Independent Socialists of Extremadura (SIEx) 8,018 0.01 New 0 ±0
Madrilenian Independent Regional Party (PRIM) 6,409 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Republican Action (AR) 6,398 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Red–Green Party (PRV) 6,232 0.01 New 0 ±0
SOS Nature (SOS) 6,149 0.01 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Castilla-La Mancha (PRCM) 6,106 0.01 New 0 ±0
Democratic Party of the People (PDEP) 6,061 0.01 New 0 ±0
Popular Front of the Canary Islands (FREPIC) 4,764 0.01 New 0 ±0
Socialist Party of the People of Ceuta (PSPC) 4,107 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Natural Culture (CN) 3,986 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Galician People's Front (FPG) 3,727 0.01 New 0 ±0
Citizen Independent Platform of Catalonia (PICC) 3,408 0.00 New 0 ±0
Independent Candidacy of Valladolid (CIV) 3,270 0.00 New 0 ±0
Yuntar Action (AY) 2,573 0.00 New 0 ±0
Alicantine Provincial Union (UPRA) 2,536 0.00 New 0 ±0
Voice of the Andalusian People (VDPA) 2,352 0.00 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Unity (UA) 2,305 0.00 New 0 ±0
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 2,080 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
National Workers' Party (PNT) 1,788 0.00 New 0 ±0
New Region (NR) 1,754 0.00 New 0 ±0
Revolutionary Workers' Party (POR) 1,438 0.00 –0.02 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Guadalajara (PRGU) 1,305 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Citizen Democratic Action (ADEC) 1,187 0.00 New 0 ±0
Social and Autonomist Liberal Group (ALAS) 1,099 0.00 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Canarian Party (PCN) 934 0.00 New 0 ±0
Inter-Zamoran Party (PIZ) 912 0.00 New 0 ±0
Iberian Unity (UI) 883 0.00 New 0 ±0
European Nation State (N) 816 0.00 New 0 ±0
Democratic Andalusian Unity (UAD) 783 0.00 New 0 ±0
Spanish Autonomous League (LAE) 610 0.00 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Party of Melilla (PNM) 595 0.00 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Social Dynamic (DSA) 581 0.00 New 0 ±0
Independents of Menorca (INME) 558 0.00 New 0 ±0
Proverist Party (PPr) 373 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Spanish Action (AE) 256 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Clean Hands Project (PML) 231 0.00 New 0 ±0
Party of The People (LG) 125 0.00 New 0 ±0
Tenerife Independent Familiar Groups (AFIT) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Centrists of the Valencian Community (CCV) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots[c] 482,601 1.97 +0.34
Total 68,612,724 208 ±0
Valid votes 24,502,854 97.41 –0.29
Invalid votes 652,656 2.59 +0.29
Votes cast / turnout 25,155,510 77.33 +0.84
Abstentions 7,376,323 22.67 –0.84
Registered voters 32,531,833
Sources[22][35][36][37]
Footnotes:
Popular vote
PP
39.04%
PSOE
37.70%
IU
9.99%
CiU
4.87%
EAJ/PNV
1.34%
CC
0.57%
EFS
0.03%
PIL
0.02%
Others
5.75%
Blank ballots
1.97%
Seats
PP
53.85%
PSOE
38.94%
CiU
3.85%
EAJ/PNV
1.92%
CC
0.48%
EFS
0.48%
PIL
0.48%

Aftermath

Investiture
José María Aznar (PP)
Ballot → 4 May 1996
Required majority → 176 out of 350 checkY
Yes
  • PP (156)
  • CiU (16)
  • PNV (5)
  • CC (4)
181 / 350
No
166 / 350
Abstentions
  • UV (1)
1 / 350
Absentees
  • HB (2)
2 / 350
Sources[38]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Results for PP (34.76%, 141 deputies and 93 senators) and PAR (0.61%, 1 deputy and 0 senators) in the 1993 election.
  2. ^ Only in Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.
  3. ^ The percentage of blank ballots is calculated over the official number of valid votes cast, irrespective of the total number of votes shown as a result of adding up the individual results for each party.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Constitución Española". Constitution of 29 December 1978 (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". Congress of Deputies (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d "Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, del Régimen Electoral General". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985 (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  4. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Real Decreto 1/1996, de 8 de enero, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (8): 502–503. 9 January 1996. ISSN 0212-033X.
  6. ^ "Convèrgencia da por terminado su apoyo global al Gobierno socialista". El País (in Spanish). 22 June 1995. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  7. ^ "El Congreso devuelve los presupuestos al Gobierno por segunda vez en la historia" (in Spanish). RTVE. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  8. ^ "Cuando González y Aznar tuvieron que pactar sus investiduras". ABC (in Spanish). 20 July 2016. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  9. ^ "CiU rechaza los Presupuestos para forzar elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 13 September 1995. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  10. ^ "La oposición devuelve los Presupuestos y exige elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 26 October 1995. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  11. ^ "Las elecciones generales serán en marzo". El País (in Spanish). 21 September 1995. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  12. ^ "González confirma las elecciones para el 3 de marzo y se ofrece a gobernar en coalición". El País (in Spanish). 29 December 1995. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  13. ^ "¿Qué son los fondos reservados?". El Mundo (in Spanish). 1 September 2001. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  14. ^ a b "Cronología del escándalo más sonado de la democracia". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 February 1998. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  15. ^ "El escándalo por corrupción más sonado de la democracia". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 February 1998. Archived from the original on 21 June 2001. Retrieved 8 July 2020.((cite news)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  16. ^ "Chantajistas, pero condenados". El País (in Spanish). 13 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  17. ^ "La juez del 'caso Ibercorp' sólo imputa a Mariano Rubio un delito de tráfico de influencias". El País (in Spanish). 21 January 1995. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  18. ^ "La corrupción del poder económico y sus amigos". El Mundo (in Spanish). 18 October 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  19. ^ "Caso Ibercorp (1994): La alta política, el papel couché y las sociedades fantasma" (in Spanish). teinteresa.es. 18 October 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Cronología del 'caso Marey', la historia de un secuestro". El Mundo (in Spanish). 1 June 2001. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  21. ^ "Grupos Parlamentarios en el Congreso de los Diputados y el Senado". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  22. ^ a b "Composición del Senado 1977-2024". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  23. ^ "Grupos parlamentarios". Congress of Deputies (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  24. ^ "Grupos Parlamentarios desde 1977". Senate of Spain (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  25. ^ "González será candidato por séptima vez". El País (in Spanish). 19 December 1995. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  26. ^ "El comité federal del PSOE proclama candidato a Felipe González sin ningún voto en contra". El País (in Spanish). 23 December 1995. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  27. ^ "PP y Par se alían para asegurar la mayoría absoluta en Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 19 January 1996. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  28. ^ "Aznar rebaña votos de los regionalistas para rentabilizar el reparto de escaños". El País (in Spanish). 27 February 1996. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  29. ^ a b "Eivissa i Formentera al Senat". eeif.es (in Catalan). L'Enciclopèdia d'Eivissa i Formentera. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  30. ^ a b c "Los lemas que ganaron elecciones". ciudadanosencrisis.wordpress.com (in Spanish). Ciudadanos en crisis. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  31. ^ "El PSOE asegura que su vídeo es legal y responde a tres años de "ataques brutales" del PP". El País (in Spanish). 19 February 1996. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  32. ^ "Aznar "¡Quiero el programa ya!". El País (in Spanish). 12 February 1996. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  33. ^ "Los carteles del PP y AP para las elecciones generales desde 1982". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 14 December 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  34. ^ "La campaña metafisica de Anguita". El País (in Spanish). 9 February 1996. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  35. ^ a b "Elecciones celebradas. Resultados electorales". Ministry of the Interior (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  36. ^ a b "Elecciones Generales 3 de marzo de 1996". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  37. ^ "Elecciones al Senado 1996". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  38. ^ "Congreso de los Diputados: Votaciones más importantes". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 September 2017.
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1996 Spanish general election
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