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1994 Quebec general election

1994 Quebec general election

← 1989 September 12, 1994 1998 →

125 seats in the 35th National Assembly of Quebec
63 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout81.58% (Increase6.56%)
  First party Second party
 
Jacques-Parizeau-Headshot-2008.jpeg
Daniel Johnson, Jr. at the PLQ Leadership Convention, March 16, 2013 CROPPED.jpg
Leader Jacques Parizeau Daniel Johnson Jr.
Party Parti Québécois Liberal
Leader since March 18, 1988 December 14, 1993
Leader's seat L'Assomption Vaudreuil
Last election 29 seats, 40.16% 92 seats, 49.95%
Seats won 77 47
Seat change Increase48 Decrease45
Popular vote 1,751,442 1,737,698
Percentage 44.75% 44.40%
Swing Increase4.59% Decrease5.55%

  Third party
 
MarioDumont.JPG
Leader Mario Dumont
Party Action démocratique
Leader since May 11, 1994
Leader's seat Rivière-du-Loup
Last election pre-creation
Seats won 1
Seat change Increase1
Popular vote 252,721
Percentage 6.46%
Swing Increase6.46%

Popular vote by riding. As this is an FPTP election, seat totals are not determined by popular vote, but instead via results by each riding. Click the map for more details.

Premier before election

Daniel Johnson Jr.
Liberal

Premier after election

Jacques Parizeau
Parti Québécois

The 1994 Quebec general election was held on September 12, 1994, to elect members of the National Assembly of Quebec. The Parti Québécois, led by Jacques Parizeau, defeated the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party, led by Premier Daniel Johnson Jr.

Johnson had succeeded Robert Bourassa as Liberal leader and Premier. Both his father, Daniel Sr., and brother, Pierre-Marc, had previously served as premiers of Quebec as leaders of different parties.

The election set the stage for the 1995 Quebec referendum on independence for Quebec from Canada. The referendum would see the PQ government's proposals for sovereignty very narrowly defeated.

Mario Dumont, a former president of the Liberal party's youth wing, and then leader of the newly formed Action démocratique du Québec, won his own seat, but no other members of his party were elected.

In Saint-Jean, there was a tie between incumbent Liberal candidate Michel Charbonneau and PQ candidate Roger Paquin. A new election was held on October 24 and was won by Paquin by a margin of 532 votes.[1]

1992 redistribution of ridings

The Commission de la représentation électorale performed a redistribution in 1992, which maintained the number of seats in the National Assembly at 125 for the next general election, making the following alterations:[2]

Abolished ridings New ridings
Drawn from parts of other ridings
Merger of ridings
Renaming of ridings
  1. ^ drawn from parts of Labelle, Prévost and Rousseau
  2. ^ drawn from parts of Groulx and Terrebonne
  3. ^ drawn from parts of Verchères and Iberville


Results

Elections to the National Assembly of Quebec (1994)[3]
Political party Party leader MNAs Votes
Candidates 1989 1994 ± # ± % ± (pp)
Parti Québécois Jacques Parizeau 125 29 77 48Increase 1,751,442 382,375Increase 44.75% 4.59Increase
Liberal Daniel Johnson Jr. 125 92 47 45Decrease 1,737,698 34,890Increase 44.40% 5.55Decrease
Action démocratique Mario Dumont 80 1 1Increase 252,721 252,721Increase 6.46% New
Equality[a 1] Keith Henderson 17 4 4Decrease 11,526 148,062Decrease 0.29% 4.39Decrease
Independent 68 66,221 42,470Increase 1.69% 0.99Increase
New Democratic Jean-François Sirois 41 33,269 8,235Decrease 0.85% 0.37Decrease
Natural Law Allen Faguy 102 33,206 33,206Increase 0.85% New
Parti de la souveraineté du Québec 19 5,566 5,566 0.14% New
Green 11 5,499 62,176Decrease 0.14% 1.85Decrease
Lemon 10 4,087 3,463Decrease 0.10% 0.12Decrease
CANADA! Tony Kondaks 10 2,567 2,567Increase 0.07% New
Republic of Canada 18 2,258 459Increase 0.06% 0.01Increase
Développement Québec 11 1,876 1,876Increase 0.05% New
Parti innovateur du Québec 11 1,861 1,861Increase 0.05% New
Parti économique du Québec 9 1,759 1,759Increase 0.04% New
Marxist–Leninist 13 1,171 3,074Decrease 0.03% 0.09Decrease
Communist 10 1,062 254Increase 0.03% 0.01Increase
Total 680 125 125 3,913,789 100.00%
Rejected ballots 78,239 13,920Decrease
Voter turnout 3,992,028 490,960Increase 81.58 5.89Increase
Registered electors 4,893,465 202,775Increase
  1. ^ Results of Unity Party included in 1989 for comparative purposes.
Seats and popular vote by party
Party Seats Votes Change (pp)
 Parti Québécois
77 / 125
44.75%
4.79 4.79
 
 Liberal
47 / 125
44.40%
-5.55
 
 Action démocratique
1 / 125
6.46%
6.46 6.46
 
 New Democratic
0 / 125
0.85%
-0.37
 
 Equality
0 / 125
0.29%
-4.39
 
 Green
0 / 125
0.14%
-1.85
 
 Independent
0 / 125
1.69%
0.99 0.99
 
 Other
0 / 125
1.42%
-0.08
 


Synopsis of results

Results by riding - 1994 Quebec general election[3][4]
Riding Winning party Turnout
[a 1]
Votes
Name 1989 Party Votes Share Margin
#
Margin
%
PQ Lib ADQ NDP NLP Ind Oth Total
 
Abitibi-Est Lib PQ 12,314 54.50% 3,917 17.33% 75.70% 12,314 8,397 1,885 22,596
Abitibi-Ouest PQ PQ 17,391 74.37% 11,398 48.74% 73.83% 17,391 5,993 23,384
Acadie Lib Lib 24,796 73.71% 18,060 53.68% 84.33% 6,736 24,796 1,591 268 251 33,642
Anjou Lib PQ 12,453 46.60% 756 2.83% 85.53% 12,453 11,697 1,753 537 188 98 26,726
Argenteuil Lib Lib 15,272 42.59% 1,802 5.03% 81.75% 13,470 15,272 6,622 224 270 35,858
Arthabaska PQ PQ 20,577 61.55% 9,126 27.30% 81.23% 20,577 11,451 369 905 130 33,432
Beauce-Nord Lib Lib 10,752 45.81% 61 0.26% 78.16% 10,691 10,752 1,434 592 23,469
Beauce-Sud Lib Lib 13,122 45.18% 164 0.56% 75.85% 12,958 13,122 856 1,543 567 29,046
Beauharnois-Huntingdon Lib Lib 16,355 51.76% 3,042 9.63% 82.43% 13,313 16,355 242 1,085 603 31,598
Bellechasse Lib PQ 10,570 46.58% 2,312 10.19% 78.10% 10,570 8,258 3,865 22,693
Berthier Lib PQ 19,206 53.66% 6,216 17.37% 82.02% 19,206 12,990 2,984 253 356 35,789
Bertrand New Lib 14,558 45.61% 146 0.46% 83.37% 14,412 14,558 2,486 238 221 31,915
Blainville New PQ 15,273 51.40% 5,813 19.56% 83.38% 15,273 9,460 4,188 322 470 29,713
Bonaventure Lib PQ 12,411 52.54% 2,306 9.76% 80.37% 12,411 10,105 925 180 23,621
Borduas New PQ 15,461 55.84% 4,810 17.37% 86.00% 15,461 10,651 1,037 537 27,686
Bourassa Lib Lib 12,963 49.91% 2,540 9.78% 83.29% 10,423 12,963 2,210 246 132 25,974
Bourget Lib PQ 12,669 45.41% 982 3.52% 84.45% 12,669 11,687 3,176 273 96 27,901
Brome-Missisquoi Lib Lib 18,402 61.12% 9,430 31.32% 84.07% 8,972 18,402 2,037 274 423 30,108
Chambly Lib PQ 19,800 48.86% 407 1.00% 87.47% 19,800 19,393 519 810 40,522
Champlain Lib PQ 14,929 42.26% 3,986 11.28% 83.64% 14,929 10,943 8,953 274 229 35,328
Chapleau Lib Lib 25,181 63.29% 12,618 31.71% 74.63% 12,563 25,181 984 222 219 618 39,787
Charlesbourg Lib PQ 17,908 47.01% 7,495 19.68% 84.72% 17,908 10,413 6,022 811 375 2,561 38,090
Charlevoix Lib PQ 12,091 52.59% 3,105 13.50% 76.34% 12,091 8,986 1,915 22,992
Châteauguay Lib Lib 17,426 51.29% 1,922 5.66% 87.02% 15,504 17,426 623 424 33,977
Chauveau Lib PQ 20,106 46.54% 6,319 14.63% 81.15% 20,106 13,787 5,427 596 3,281 43,197
Chicoutimi PQ PQ 22,025 63.55% 13,004 37.52% 78.27% 22,025 9,021 2,619 706 285 34,656
Chomedey Lib Lib 25,885 67.70% 16,646 43.54% 82.18% 9,239 25,885 1,997 150 962 38,233
Chutes-de-la-Chaudière PQ PQ 21,091 51.80% 11,871 29.16% 82.88% 21,091 9,220 7,263 834 279 2,027 40,714
Crémazie Lib PQ 14,482 46.79% 429 1.39% 86.02% 14,482 14,053 1,703 337 193 180 30,948
D'Arcy-McGee Eq Lib 21,325 65.37% 11,269 34.54% 84.46% 1,084 21,325 157 10,056 32,622
Deux-Montagnes Lib PQ 20,742 48.34% 5,689 13.26% 83.28% 20,742 15,053 6,523 286 305 42,909
Drummond Lib PQ 16,625 46.54% 4,766 13.34% 80.42% 16,625 11,859 3,585 296 3,355 35,720
Dubuc PQ PQ 16,759 63.50% 9,617 36.44% 77.74% 16,759 7,142 2,162 328 26,391
Duplessis PQ PQ 15,788 60.00% 5,263 20.00% 73.51% 15,788 10,525 26,313
Fabre Lib PQ 17,679 44.30% 1,109 2.78% 86.55% 17,679 16,570 5,043 259 359 39,910
Frontenac Lib Lib 14,916 52.69% 2,336 8.25% 84.02% 12,580 14,916 813 28,309
Gaspé Lib PQ 11,410 53.39% 3,377 15.80% 73.51% 11,410 8,033 1,774 156 21,373
Gatineau Lib Lib 19,046 65.05% 9,683 33.07% 77.96% 9,363 19,046 259 609 29,277
Gouin PQ PQ 17,305 56.42% 6,361 20.74% 80.04% 17,305 10,944 1,428 263 458 274 30,672
Groulx Lib PQ 15,027 46.11% 2,637 8.09% 83.08% 15,027 12,390 4,328 185 152 508 32,590
Hochelaga-Maisonneuve PQ PQ 14,858 64.78% 8,819 38.45% 75.54% 14,858 6,039 1,249 392 190 209 22,937
Hull Lib Lib 19,184 56.56% 5,237 15.44% 78.33% 13,947 19,184 231 554 33,916
Iberville Lib PQ 15,604 43.41% 1,464 4.07% 82.96% 15,604 14,140 4,122 645 1,004 428 35,943
Îles-de-la-Madeleine Lib Lib 5,455 59.98% 1,816 19.97% 86.41% 3,639 5,455 9,094
Jacques-Cartier Eq Lib 32,839 83.65% 29,398 74.89% 88.12% 3,441 32,839 206 2,771[a 2] 39,257
Jeanne-Mance Lib Lib 21,294 74.22% 14,760 51.45% 81.52% 6,534 21,294 322 540 28,690
Jean-Talon Lib Lib 12,229 43.90% 25 0.09% 88.95% 12,204 12,229 2,082 313 130 816 83 27,857
Johnson PQ PQ 13,247 49.78% 1,246 4.68% 81.13% 13,247 12,001 630 732 26,610
Joliette PQ PQ 21,903 64.71% 13,191 38.97% 83.84% 21,903 8,712 2,651 581 33,847
Jonquière PQ PQ 22,598 69.43% 13,895 42.69% 80.03% 22,598 8,703 1,248 32,549
Kamouraska-Témiscouata Lib Lib 10,373 42.69% 386 1.59% 73.30% 9,987 10,373 3,223 717 24,300
Labelle PQ PQ 17,638 65.78% 9,144 34.10% 78.27% 17,638 8,494 340 342 26,814
Lac-Saint-Jean PQ PQ 20,743 71.67% 13,474 46.55% 78.58% 20,743 7,269 931 28,943
LaFontaine Lib Lib 20,698 55.67% 7,836 21.08% 82.87% 12,862 20,698 2,971 316 334 37,181
La Peltrie Lib PQ 20,475 49.27% 8,569 20.62% 85.51% 20,475 11,906 6,003 475 2,701 41,560
La Pinière Lib Lib 22,252 62.68% 10,057 28.33% 85.84% 12,195 22,252 597 457 35,501
Laporte Lib Lib 21,162 57.79% 7,094 19.37% 85.17% 14,068 21,162 382 1,006 36,618
La Prairie PQ PQ 23,164 55.35% 8,444 20.18% 85.22% 23,164 14,720 3,103 371 493 41,851
L'Assomption PQ PQ 21,809 56.04% 10,992 28.24% 85.60% 21,809 10,817 5,925 366 38,917
Laurier-Dorion New Lib 18,522 55.53% 6,930 20.78% 81.65% 11,592 18,522 1,723 409 274 832 33,352
Laval-des-Rapides Lib PQ 14,179 46.85% 1,733 5.73% 82.68% 14,179 12,446 2,738 669 232 30,264
Laviolette PQ PQ 16,670 63.54% 9,212 35.11% 78.66% 16,670 7,458 1,880 226 26,234
Lévis PQ PQ 20,998 72.26% 12,937 44.52% 82.11% 20,998 8,061 29,059
Limoilou Lib PQ 15,092 44.42% 4,484 13.20% 79.16% 15,092 10,608 4,066 938 2,738 537 33,979
Lotbinière Lib PQ 10,398 45.56% 283 1.24% 80.88% 10,398 10,115 2,308 22,821
Louis-Hébert Lib PQ 12,905 39.37% 3,441 10.50% 85.86% 12,905 7,833 1,868 415 124 9,633[a 3] 32,778
Marguerite-Bourgeoys Lib Lib 24,046 70.34% 16,196 47.38% 86.07% 7,850 24,046 1,200 392 226 472 34,186
Marguerite-D'Youville PQ PQ 19,995 58.02% 6,906 20.04% 87.16% 19,995 13,089 554 822 34,460
Marie-Victorin PQ PQ 17,611 56.19% 7,390 23.58% 80.34% 17,611 10,221 2,749 376 383 31,340
Marquette Lib Lib 16,774 55.06% 5,728 18.80% 83.57% 11,046 16,774 1,449 164 573 460 30,466
Maskinongé Lib PQ 16,047 47.56% 2,919 8.65% 81.72% 16,047 13,128 4,261 307 33,743
Masson PQ PQ 21,481 64.19% 14,490 43.30% 82.71% 21,481 6,991 4,388 255 351 33,466
Matane Lib PQ 11,625 54.60% 4,230 19.87% 76.95% 11,625 7,395 2,270 21,290
Matapédia Lib PQ 12,826 58.48% 3,719 16.96% 76.20% 12,826 9,107 21,933
Mégantic-Compton Lib Lib 12,799 53.95% 2,748 11.58% 81.03% 10,051 12,799 444 431 23,725
Mercier PQ PQ 17,523 56.48% 8,044 25.93% 80.33% 17,523 9,479 1,681 815 259 1,269 31,026
Mille-Îles Lib PQ 17,337 45.68% 1,371 3.61% 86.87% 17,337 15,966 4,182 295 177 37,957
Montmagny-L'Islet Lib Lib 10,339 44.36% 855 3.67% 75.02% 9,484 10,339 881 2,605 23,309
Montmorency Lib PQ 22,734 55.74% 13,068 32.04% 80.74% 22,734 9,666 2,875 534 4,827 150 40,786
Mont-Royal Lib Lib 22,827 80.41% 19,100 67.28% 80.07% 3,727 22,827 605 143 144 943 28,389
Nelligan Lib Lib 33,804 77.16% 25,794 58.88% 86.24% 8,010 33,804 276 1,721 43,811
Nicolet-Yamaska Lib PQ 13,427 50.13% 907 3.39% 84.85% 13,427 12,520 840 26,787
Notre-Dame-de-Grâce Eq Lib 21,716 73.08% 17,961 60.44% 83.19% 3,755 21,716 406 112 1,752[a 4] 1,975 29,716
Orford Lib Lib 19,082 51.07% 3,787 10.13% 82.79% 15,295 19,082 2,454 293 242 37,366
Outremont Lib Lib 19,346 62.11% 9,528 30.59% 82.11% 9,818 19,346 1,049 453 263 220 31,149
Papineau Lib Lib 15,084 53.67% 3,381 12.03% 80.97% 11,703 15,084 836 178 303 28,104
Pointe-aux-Trembles PQ PQ 15,999 53.77% 6,034 20.28% 82.46% 15,999 9,965 3,466 324 29,754
Pontiac Lib Lib 23,066 80.18% 18,883 65.64% 80.90% 4,183 23,066 131 1,387 28,767
Portneuf Lib PQ 14,256 47.88% 3,776 12.68% 79.80% 14,256 10,480 4,501 537 29,774
Prévost Lib PQ 17,425 50.52% 4,110 11.92% 81.31% 17,425 13,315 2,499 1,033 219 34,491
Richelieu Lib PQ 17,186 55.09% 4,745 15.21% 83.23% 17,186 12,441 1,570 31,197
Richmond Lib Lib 14,106 54.28% 4,061 15.63% 84.11% 10,045 14,106 1,486 197 154 25,988
Rimouski Lib PQ 14,926 51.45% 2,627 9.06% 78.33% 14,926 12,299 1,556 227 29,008
Rivière-du-Loup Lib ADQ 13,307 54.77% 6,699 27.57% 83.65% 6,608 4,226 13,307 55 99 24,295
Robert-Baldwin Lib Lib 29,865 82.98% 26,324 73.14% 85.17% 3,541 29,865 909 123 1,552 35,990
Roberval Lib PQ 18,281 60.08% 7,055 23.18% 75.15% 18,281 11,226 923 30,430
Rosemont Lib PQ 14,736 49.25% 2,500 8.36% 83.71% 14,736 12,236 1,946 626 226 149 29,919
Rousseau Lib PQ 16,532 53.86% 6,699 21.82% 77.66% 16,532 9,833 3,595 631 106 30,697
Rouyn-Noranda–Témiscamingue PQ PQ 18,160 58.62% 7,372 23.80% 77.75% 18,160 10,788 2,030 30,978
Saguenay Lib PQ 14,439 57.44% 7,004 27.86% 72.47% 14,439 7,435 3,264 25,138
Sainte-Marie–Saint-Jacques PQ PQ 16,723 54.73% 6,662 21.80% 75.07% 16,723 10,061 1,691 621 246 647 567 30,556
Saint-François Lib Lib 15,861 49.48% 2,616 8.16% 82.20% 13,245 15,861 2,422 294 236 32,058
Saint-Henri-Sainte-Anne New Lib 14,940 47.96% 641 2.06% 81.21% 14,299 14,940 998 344 112 457 31,150
Saint-Hyacinthe Lib PQ 15,988 44.94% 1,092 3.07% 82.53% 15,988 14,896 3,398 1,292 35,574
Saint-Jean[a 5] Lib PQ 15,680 43.79% 532 1.49% 76.53% 15,680 15,148 4,693 204 82 35,807
Saint-Laurent Lib Lib 25,711 76.73% 20,109 60.01% 81.83% 5,602 25,711 1,061 154 72 907 33,507
Saint-Maurice Lib PQ 13,202 47.38% 2,137 7.67% 84.25% 13,202 11,065 3,106 238 254 27,865
Salaberry-Soulanges Lib PQ 19,448 48.28% 1,009 2.51% 85.37% 19,448 18,439 1,644 322 425 40,278
Sauvé Lib Lib 13,447 53.85% 4,183 16.75% 80.26% 9,264 13,447 1,562 453 129 43 72 24,970
Shefford PQ Lib 17,282 45.71% 1,323 3.50% 81.22% 15,959 17,282 4,028 360 177 37,806
Sherbrooke Lib PQ 14,733 47.31% 1,391 4.47% 82.27% 14,733 13,342 2,564 326 176 31,141
Taillon PQ PQ 23,315 60.99% 9,994 26.14% 81.79% 23,315 13,321 844 746 38,226
Taschereau Lib PQ 12,308 51.86% 5,783 24.37% 78.78% 12,308 6,525 2,041 705 332 1,741 80 23,732
Terrebonne PQ PQ 19,671 60.39% 11,444 35.13% 83.20% 19,671 8,227 4,389 285 32,572
Trois-Rivières Lib PQ 12,607 43.24% 609 2.09% 81.94% 12,607 11,998 4,267 281 29,153
Ungava PQ PQ 7,276 54.19% 1,905 14.19% 51.81% 7,276 5,371 372 407 13,426
Vachon Lib PQ 15,685 48.86% 3,531 11.00% 84.38% 15,685 12,154 3,536 300 424 32,099
Vanier Lib PQ 18,257 49.50% 8,799 23.85% 80.39% 18,257 9,458 4,906 1,054 3,008 203 36,886
Vaudreuil Lib Lib 24,849 59.50% 9,107 21.81% 87.19% 15,742 24,849 324 846 41,761
Verchères PQ PQ 16,308 57.77% 8,131 28.81% 83.11% 16,308 8,177 3,356 386 28,227
Verdun Lib Lib 18,392 54.57% 6,429 19.07% 81.89% 11,963[a 6] 18,392 2,327 368 167 489 33,706
Viau Lib Lib 17,946 63.19% 9,483 33.39% 79.73% 8,463 17,946 1,482 291 218 28,400
Viger Lib Lib 18,743 64.27% 10,214 35.02% 84.12% 8,529 18,743 1,485 223 185 29,165
Vimont Lib PQ 18,985 44.88% 128 0.30% 86.44% 18,985 18,857 2,783 1,142 279 257 42,303
Westmount-Saint-Louis New Lib 26,478 79.20% 22,100 66.10% 77.87% 4,378 26,478 741 239 100 24 1,473 33,433
  1. ^ including spoilt ballots
  2. ^ The incumbent Neil Cameron (Equality Party) received 2,415 votes
  3. ^ André Arthur came in second, with 9,464 votes
  4. ^ The incumbent Gordon Atkinson (formerly of the Equality Party) received 1,628 votes
  5. ^ Results for byelection held on October 24, 1994. Initial vote ended in a tie, which was declared void.
  6. ^ Richard Holden was previously elected under the Equality Party banner in Westmount, before becoming a péquiste in 1992.
  = open seat
  = turnout is above provincial average
  = winning candidate was in previous Legislature
  = incumbent had switched allegiance
  = previously incumbent in another riding
  = not incumbent; was previously elected to the Legislature
  = incumbency arose from byelection gain
  = other incumbents renominated
  = previously an MP in the House of Commons of Canada
  = multiple candidates

Analysis

Seating arrangement in the 35th National Assembly
Party candidates in 2nd place[3]
Party in 1st place Party in 2nd place Total
PQ Lib Ind
Parti Québécois 76 1 77
Liberal 46 1 47
Action démocratique 1 1
Total 47 76 2 125
Candidates ranked 1st to 5th place, by party[3]
Parties 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
 Parti Québécois 77 47 1
 Liberal 47 76 2
 Action démocratique 1 76 2
 Independent 2 9 14 8
 Natural Law 10 42 6
 New Democratic 8 22 9
 Equality 5 8 4
 Green 4 4 1
 Lemon 3 4 2
 Parti innovateur du Québec 1 1 4
 Parti de la souveraineté du Québec 7 4
 Développement Québec 2 1
 CANADA! 1 6
 Parti économique du Québec 6
 Republic of Canada 5
 Marxist–Leninist 1
 Communist 1
Resulting composition of the 35th Quebec Legislative Assembly[4]
Source Party
PQ Lib ADQ Total
Seats retained Incumbents returned 24 27 51
Open seats held 4 12 16
Seats changing hands Incumbents defeated 18 3 21
Open seats gained 24 1 25
Byelection gains held 5 1 6
New seats New MNAs 2 2
Previously incumbent in another riding 4 4
Total 77 47 1 125

See also

References

  1. ^ "Quebec votes 2003 - Riding Profiles: Saint-Jean". CBC News.
  2. ^ "Historique des circonscriptions du Québec" [History of Quebec's electoral districts]. electionsquebec.qc.ca (in French). Retrieved December 26, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d Drouilly, Pierre (December 4, 2017). "Élections québécoises de 1994". donneesquebec.ca. Atlas des élections au Québec.
  4. ^ a b "Les membres de l'Assemblée nationale par circonscription" [National Assembly members by riding] (in French). National Assembly of Quebec. Retrieved September 13, 2023.

Further reading

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1994 Quebec general election
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