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1978 Tour de France

1978 Tour de France
Route of the 1978 Tour de France
Route of the 1978 Tour de France
Race details
Dates29 June – 23 July 1978
Stages22 + Prologue, including two split stages
Distance3,908 km (2,428 mi)
Winning time112h 03' 02"
Winner  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo)
  Second  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) (Miko–Mercier–Vivagel)
  Third  Joaquim Agostinho (POR) (Flandria–Velda–Lano)

Points  Freddy Maertens (BEL) (Flandria–Velda–Lano)
Mountains  Mariano Martínez (FRA) (Jobo–Spidel–La Roue d'Or)
Youth  Henk Lubberding (NED) (TI–Raleigh–McGregor)
  Sprints  Jacques Bossis (FRA) (Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo)
  Combativity  Paul Wellens (BEL) (TI–Raleigh–McGregor)
  Team Miko–Mercier–Vivagel
  Team points TI–Raleigh–McGregor
← 1977
1979 →

The 1978 Tour de France was the 65th edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It took place between 29 June and 23 July, with 22 stages covering a distance of 3,908 km (2,428 mi).

The 1978 Tour had a high-profile doping case when Michel Pollentier was caught in an attempt to cheat the doping test, after he had won the 16th stage to Alpe d'Huez, and had taken the lead in the general classification. Pollentier left the race, and the overall victory became a battle between Joop Zoetemelk and Bernard Hinault. In the end, it was won by debutant Bernard Hinault, for the first of his five victories. The points classification was won by Freddy Maertens, and the mountains classification by Mariano Martínez.


The 1978 Tour started with 11 teams, each sent 10 cyclists, a total of 110.[1][2]

The teams entering the race were:

Pre-race favourites

Since the 1977 Tour de France, dominant riders as Eddy Merckx, Felice Gimondi, Raymond Poulidor and Luis Ocaña had retired.[3] Lucien Van Impe, the winner of 1976, had broken his collarbone and was still recovering.[4]

The main contenders were debutant Hinault, who had won the 1978 Vuelta a España, and Joop Zoetemelk, who had already finished in second place for three times. Pre-race analysis judged Hinault better in the time trials, and Zoetemelk better in the mountains.[4] Bernard Thévenet, the winner of the 1977 Tour de France, was out of form, and not considered a favourite.[1]

Route and stages

The 1978 Tour de France started on 29 June, and had two rest days, in Biarritz and Alpe d'Huez.[5] The highest point of elevation in the race was 2,115 m (6,939 ft) at the summit of the Col du Tourmalet mountain pass on stage 11.[6][7]

The twenty-first stage from Épernay to Senlis was split in three parts: 78.5 km from Épernay to Soissons, directly followed by 59 km from Soissons to Compiègne, directly followed by 70.5 km from Compiègne to Senlis; the sprints in Soissons and Compiègne counted as flying stages, which were won by Freddy Maertens and Wilfried Wesemael.[8] Although they technically had the same status as all other stages, these flying stages are not shown in most overviews.

Stage characteristics and winners[1][5][9]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 29 June Leiden (Netherlands) 5 km (3.1 mi) Individual time trial  Jan Raas (NED)
1a 30 June Leiden to Sint Willebrord (Netherlands) 135 km (84 mi) Plain stage  Jan Raas (NED)
1b Sint Willebrord (Netherlands) to Brussels (Belgium) 100 km (62 mi) Plain stage  Walter Planckaert (BEL)
2 1 July Brussels (Belgium) to Saint-Amand-les-Eaux 199 km (124 mi) Plain stage  Jacques Esclassan (FRA)
3 2 July Saint-Amand-les-Eaux to Saint-Germain-en-Laye 244 km (152 mi) Plain stage  Klaus-Peter Thaler (FRG)
4 3 July Évreux to Caen 153 km (95 mi) Team time trial  TI–Raleigh–McGregor
5 4 July Caen to MazéMontgeoffroy 244 km (152 mi) Plain stage  Freddy Maertens (BEL)
6 5 July MazéMontgeoffroy to Poitiers 162 km (101 mi) Plain stage  Sean Kelly (IRE)
7 6 July Poitiers to Bordeaux 242 km (150 mi) Plain stage  Freddy Maertens (BEL)
8 7 July Saint-Émilion to Sainte-Foy-la-Grande 59 km (37 mi) Individual time trial  Bernard Hinault (FRA)
9 8 July Bordeaux to Biarritz 233 km (145 mi) Plain stage  Miguel María Lasa (ESP)
9 July Biarritz Rest day
10 10 July Biarritz to Pau 192 km (119 mi) Hilly stage  Henk Lubberding (NED)
11 11 July Pau to Saint-Lary-Soulan Pla d'Adet 161 km (100 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Mariano Martínez (FRA)
12a 12 July Tarbes to Valence d'Agen 158 km (98 mi) Plain stage  Cancelled
12b Valence d'Agen to Toulouse 96 km (60 mi) Plain stage  Jacques Esclassan (FRA)
13 13 July Figeac to Super Besse 221 km (137 mi) Hilly stage  Paul Wellens (BEL)
14 14 July Besse-en-Chandesse to Puy-de-Dôme 52 km (32 mi) Individual time trial  Joop Zoetemelk (NED)
15 15 July Saint-Dier-d'Auvergne to Saint-Étienne 196 km (122 mi) Hilly stage  Bernard Hinault (FRA)
16 16 July St-Étienne to Alpe d'Huez 241 km (150 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Hennie Kuiper (NED)
17 July Alpe d'Huez Rest day
17 18 July Grenoble to Morzine 225 km (140 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Christian Seznec (FRA)
18 19 July Morzine to Lausanne (Switzerland) 137 km (85 mi) Plain stage  Gerrie Knetemann (NED)
19 20 July Lausanne (Switzerland) to Belfort 182 km (113 mi) Plain stage  Marc Demeyer (BEL)
20 21 July Metz to Nancy 72 km (45 mi) Individual time trial  Bernard Hinault (FRA)
21 22 July Épernay to Senlis 207 km (129 mi) Plain stage  Jan Raas (NED)
22 23 July Saint Germain en Laye to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 162 km (101 mi) Plain stage  Gerrie Knetemann (NED)
Total 3,908 km (2,428 mi)[10]

Race overview

The start of stage 1b in Sint Willebrord, Netherlands

During the prologue, held in the Netherlands, the weather was bad. The four top places were taken by Dutch cyclists, with Jan Raas the winner. The team directors then had a meeting, and all but the manager of Raas' team voted to request the Tour directors to not count the results from the prologue for the overall classification. The directors agreed, so the prologue results did not count.[11][12] Jan Raas was still given the stage win, but he was not recognized as race leader, so he was not allowed to wear the yellow jersey during the first stage. The winner of the previous year, Bernard Thévenet, was allowed to wear the yellow jersey, but he refused.[11] In that first stage, Raas and his team were full of anger. Raas escaped close to the finish, and beat everybody by a second, thus becoming the race's leader after all.[11]

Raas lost the lead in the third stage. The fourth stage was run as a time trial. The TI–Raleigh team was specialized in this, and they won the stage. Klaus-Peter Thaler of the TI–Raleigh team became the new leader, thanks to the bonification seconds.[11] Hinault beat Zoetemelk in the time trial in stage eight.[4] Joseph Bruyère, former second man of Eddy Merckx, finished in second place and became the new race leader.[11]

The eleventh stage included the toughest mountains in the Pyrenées. On the last mountain, the Pla d'Adet, Pollentier and Zoetemelk attacked, and Martinez and Hinault soon followed. Martinez rode away to win the stage, and Hinault won some seconds on Zoetemelk. Bruyère stayed the leader, with Hinault in second place and Zoetemelk in third place.[4] During that stage, Thevenet retired.[11] The next day, the twelfth stage was scheduled, split into two sections. This meant that after the transfer from the previous stage, the riders were not in bed before 12:00 am, and had to wake up at 5:00 am.[11] In the early stage to Valence-d'Agen, the riders held a strike against the early start. They rode at a slow pace of 20 kilometres per hour (12 mph),[4] arrived at the finish well behind schedule, and crossed the finish line walking.[13] The Tour officials canceled the stage.[4] The fourteenth stage was an individual mountain time trial. Zoetemelk won the stage, beating Bruyère by 55 seconds and Hinault by 100 seconds.[4] Hinault had lost some time because his lightweight bike, that he intended to use for the steepest part, broke when he hit a spectator while changing bikes.[11]

Bernard Hinault celebrating winning the general classification at the end of the Tour

In the sixteenth stage, that ended on top of Alpe d'Huez, Pollentier attacked. At the foot of the Alpe d'Huez, Pollentier had a margin of two minutes. He was chased by Hinault, Zoetemelk and Kuiper, who at 4 km before the finish had closed the gap to 50 seconds. Hinault then attacked, and Kuiper could follow but Zoetemelk had to let them go. Pollentier stayed away, won the stage and became the new leader of the general classification.[4] As stage winner and general classification leader, Pollentier had to go to the doping control. Pollentier first went to his hotel, and was only found two hours later.[11] Another cyclist at the doping control, Antoine Guttierrez, was found with a fake urine sample, trying to use it to fake the doping control. This device did not work, and the race doctor discovered the fraud. He then checked the other cyclists, and Pollentier was using the same fraud.[11] Pollentier was removed from the race, and Zoetemelk became the new leader.[4] Pollentier later explained that he tried to evade the controls because he had taken amphetamines for breathing, and he did not know if it would give back a positive test.[11]

In the seventeenth stage, Kuiper, third in the general classification, crashed, broke a clavicle, and had to leave the race.[11] Hinault was only 14 seconds behind Zoetemelk at the start of the time trial in stage 20. Hinault won that time trial by more than four minutes over Zoetemelk, and became the race leader.[4]


In total, 110 doping tests were done. Three cyclists were penalised for doping offences, all tested after the sixteenth stage;[14] Antoine Guttierrez, for attempt of fraud; Michel Pollentier, for attempt of fraud; and José Nazabal. Nazabal had already anticipated the positive result, and had left the race before the eighteenth stage. Guttierrez and Pollentier were removed from the race and banned for two months; Nazabal was set back to the last place of the stage, received ten minutes penalty time in the general classification, a fine of 1000 Swiss Francs and one month provisional suspension.

Classification leadership and minor prizes

There were several classifications in the 1978 Tour de France, four of them awarding jerseys to their leaders.[15] The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[16] Some rules were changed after the 1977 Tour de France, mainly concerning the time bonuses. In previous years, intermediate sprints were not associated with time bonuses, but in 1978, the winner of such a sprint got 20 seconds bonification time, if he was part of an escape (defined as a group with less than 20% of the total cyclists, with a margin of 20 seconds of more on the next group).[17] The penalty system was also changed. In previous years, cyclists who broke the rules on minor points (being pushed, taking drinks on places where it was not allowed) were penalised with points in the points classification. From 1978 on, time penalties were also given for the general classification.[17]

Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[18]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorised some climbs as either first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorised climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and wore a white jersey with red polka dots.[19]

Another classification was the young rider classification.[20] This was decided the same way as the general classification, but restricted to riders who were born after 1 July 1978, and were in their first or second year as professional cyclist. There were 34 riders that qualified for the classification on the start list.[21] The leader wore a white jersey.[20]

The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1978, this classification had no associated jersey.[22]

The team classification in 1977 was calculated with the times of the three best cyclists per team, but was in 1978 changed to the best five cyclists.[17][23] The riders in the team that led this classification were identified by yellow caps.[22] There was also a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point. The first three finishers of each team had their points combined, and the team with the fewest points led the classification. The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps.[22] The Kas team finished with only two cyclists, so was not eligible for the team classifications.[24] The Souvenir Henri Desgrange was given in honour of Tour founder Henri Desgrange to the first rider to pass a point on stage 11 in the valley village of Sainte-Marie de Campan climb. This prize was won by Christian Seznec.[25]

In addition, there was a combativity award, in which a jury composed of journalists gave points after certain stages to the cyclist they considered most combative. The split stages each had a combined winner.[26] At the conclusion of the Tour, Paul Wellens won the overall super-combativity award, also decided by journalists.[5]

Classification leadership by stage[27][28]
Stage Stage winner General classification
Points classification
Mountains classification
Young rider classification
Intermediate sprints classification Team classifications
By time By points
P Jan Raas cancelled no award no award no award no award cancelled cancelled
1a Jan Raas Jan Raas Jan Raas Jean-Louis Gauthier Freddy Maertens TI–Raleigh–McGregor TI–Raleigh–McGregor
1b Walter Planckaert Freddy Maertens
2 Jacques Esclassan Roger Legeay Sean Kelly
3 Klaus-Peter Thaler Jacques Bossis René Bittinger Jacques Bossis
4 TI–Raleigh–McGregor Klaus-Peter Thaler
5 Freddy Maertens Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo
6 Sean Kelly Gerrie Knetemann Peugeot–Esso–Michelin
7 Freddy Maertens
8 Bernard Hinault Joseph Bruyère Henk Lubberding
9 Miguel María Lasa
10 Henk Lubberding Gilbert Lelay
11 Mariano Martínez Michel Pollentier Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo
12a cancelled
12b Jacques Esclassan Peugeot–Esso–Michelin
13 Paul Wellens C&A TI–Raleigh–McGregor
14 Joop Zoetemelk
15 Bernard Hinault Miko–Mercier–Vivagel
16 Hennie Kuiper Joop Zoetemelk Mariano Martínez
17 Christian Seznec Bernard Hinault
18 Gerrie Knetemann Mariano Martínez
19 Marc Demeyer
20 Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault
21 Jan Raas
22 Gerrie Knetemann
Final Bernard Hinault Freddy Maertens Mariano Martínez Henk Lubberding Jacques Bossis Miko–Mercier–Vivagel TI–Raleigh–McGregor

Final standings

A yellow jersey. Denotes the winner of the general classification A green jersey. Denotes the winner of the points classification
A white jersey with red polka dots. Denotes the winner of the mountains classification A white jersey. Denotes the winner of the young rider classification

General classification

Final general classification (1–10)[29][30]
Rank Rider Team Time
1  Bernard Hinault (FRA) A yellow jersey. Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 107h 18' 00"
2  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel + 3' 56"
3  Joaquim Agostinho (POR) Flandria–Velda–Lano + 6' 54"
4  Joseph Bruyère (BEL) C&A + 9' 04"
5  Christian Seznec (FRA) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel + 12' 50"
6  Paul Wellens (BEL) TI–Raleigh–McGregor + 14' 38"
7  Francisco Galdós (ESP) Kas–Campagnolo + 17' 08"
8  Henk Lubberding (NED) A white jersey. TI–Raleigh–McGregor + 17' 26"
9  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) C&A + 21' 01"
10  Mariano Martínez (FRA) A white jersey with red polka dots. Jobo–Spidel–La Roue d'Or + 22' 58"

Points classification[edit]

Final points classification (1–10)[31][24]
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Freddy Maertens (BEL) A green jersey. Flandria–Velda–Lano 242
2  Jacques Esclassan (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 185
3  Bernard Hinault (FRA) A yellow jersey. Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 123
4  Jan Raas (NED) TI–Raleigh–McGregor 109
5  Joseph Bruyère (BEL) C&A 100
6  Klaus-Peter Thaler (FRG) TI–Raleigh–McGregor 91
7  Yvon Bertin (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 79
8  Jacques Bossis (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 74
9  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 71
10  Joaquim Agostinho (POR) Teka 70

Mountains classification[edit]

Final mountains classification (1–10)[31][24]
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Mariano Martínez (FRA) A white jersey with red polka dots. Jobo–Spidel–La Roue d'Or 187
2  Bernard Hinault (FRA) A yellow jersey. Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 176
3  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 155
4  Christian Seznec (FRA) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 90
5  Joaquim Agostinho (POR) Flandria–Velda–Lano 73
6  Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 70
7  Paul Wellens (BEL) TI–Raleigh–McGregor 68
8  René Bittinger (FRA) Flandria–Velda–Lano 63
9  Gilbert Le Lay (FRA) Fiat 54
10  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) C&A 53

Young rider classification[edit]

Final young rider classification (1–10)[31][24][32]
Rank Rider Team Time
1  Henk Lubberding (NED) A white jersey. TI–Raleigh–McGregor 107h 25' 26"
2  Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel + 05' 34"
3  René Bittinger (FRA) Flandria–Velda–Lano + 36' 21"
4  Pierre Bazzo (FRA) Lejeune–BP + 38' 09"
5  Gilbert Le Lay (FRA) Fiat + 40' 14"
6  René Martens (BEL) C&A + 45' 03"
7  Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo + 50' 24"
8  Juan Pujol (ESP) Kas–Campagnolo + 50' 54"
9  Sean Kelly (IRE) Flandria–Velda–Lano + 52' 52"
10  Gilbert Chaumaz (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo + 58' 24"

Intermediate sprints classification[edit]

Final intermediate sprints classification (1–10)[31][33]
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Jacques Bossis (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 95
2  Philippe Tesnière (FRA) Fiat 60
3  Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 52
4  Freddy Maertens (BEL) A green jersey. Flandria–Velda–Lano 44
5  Marcel Laurens (BEL) C&A 21
6  Jean-Jacques Fussien (FRA) Fiat 18
7  Bernard Hinault (FRA) A yellow jersey. Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 18
8  Jacques Esclassan (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 16
9  Yvon Bertin (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 15
10  Sean Kelly (IRE) Flandria–Velda–Lano 14

Team classification[edit]

Final team classification (1–10)[31][24]
Rank Team Time
1 Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 562h 05' 52"
2 TI–Raleigh–McGregor + 17' 20"
3 C&A + 17' 22"
4 Flandria–Velda–Lano + 1h 15' 45"
5 Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo + 1h 47' 46"
6 Peugeot–Esso–Michelin + 4h 25' 36"
7 Lejeune–BP + 4h 29' 18"
8 Teka + 4h 51' 32"
9 Jobo–Spidel–La Roue d'Or + 5h 02' 48"
10 Fiat + 7h 04' 37"

Team points classification[edit]

Final team points classification (1–10)[31][24]
Rank Team Time
1 TI–Raleigh–McGregor 720
2 Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 909
3 Flandria–Velda–Lano 972
4 Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 1072
5 Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 1144
6 C&A 1456
7 Jobo–Spidel–La Roue d'Or 1656
8 Lejeune–BP 1729
9 Fiat 2347
10 Teka 2629

Super Prestige Pernod ranking

The top twelve places of the general classification awarded points that contributed towards the Super Prestige Pernod ranking,[34] an international season-long road cycling competition, with the winner seen as the best all-round rider.[35] The 110 points accrued by Bernard Hinault moved him to the top, replacing Francesco Moser, who did not ride the Tour.[36]

Super Prestige Pernod ranking on 23 July 1978 (1–6)[36]
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Bernard Hinault (FRA) Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 210
2  Francesco Moser (ITA) Sanson–Campagnolo 178
3  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 136
4  Roger De Vlaeminck (BEL) Sanson–Campagnolo 104
5  Michel Pollentier (BEL) Flandria–Velda–Lano 104
6  Joseph Bruyère (BEL) C&A 103

See also


  1. ^ a b c "65ème Tour de France 1978" [65th Tour de France 1978]. Mémoire du cyclisme (in French). Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Historique du Tour de France - Year 1978: The starters". Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  3. ^ Thompson, p.215
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Boyce, Barry (2006). "1978: The Cannibal Retires, the Badger Shines". Cycling Revealed. Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Augendre 2016, p. 69.
  6. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 188.
  7. ^ "Ronde van Frankrijk" [Tour de France]. De Waarheid (in Dutch). 24 June 1978. p. 7 – via Delpher.
  8. ^ "Acht Nederlandse zege's". Het vrije volk (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 24 July 1978. p. 16. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  9. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC top ten". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  10. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 109.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McGann & McGann 2008, pp. 111–117.
  12. ^ "The story of the 1978 Tour de France". ROAD Magazine. No. August 2011. Valencia, California: H3 Publications. pp. 90–94. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019 – via BlueToad.
  13. ^ Thompson, p.102
  14. ^ "Tombés au champs d'honneur" (in French). Magazine Sport & Vie. July 2003. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  15. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–455.
  16. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 452–453.
  17. ^ a b c "Bonificaties, truien, punten en klassementen". Het Vrije Volk (in Dutch). De Arbeiderspers. 29 June 1978. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  18. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 453–454.
  19. ^ Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 454.
  20. ^ a b Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 454–455.
  21. ^ "Henk Lubberding rijdt een geweldige Tour, ook al valt dat nauwelijks op" [Henk Lubberding is driving a great Tour, even though that is hardly noticeable]. Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 14 July 1978. p. 9. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019 – via De Krant van Toen.
  22. ^ a b c Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 455.
  23. ^ "Tour de France '78 bijna 4000 km lang" [Tour de France '78 almost 4000 km long]. Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 10 November 1977. p. 13. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019 – via De Krant van Toen.
  24. ^ a b c d e f "Clasificaciones oficiales" (PDF). Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 24 July 1978. p. 25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2019.
  25. ^ "Tour-Varia" [Tour-Miscellaneous]. De Stem (in Dutch). 12 July 1978. p. 8 – via Krantenbank Zeeland.
  26. ^ van den Akker 2018, pp. 211–216.
  27. ^ "Tour panorama". Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 24 July 1978. p. 11. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019.
  28. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Informatie over de Tour de France van 1978" [Information about the Tour de France from 1978]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  29. ^ a b Magowan 1979, p. 198.
  30. ^ Duker 1978, "Final general classification".
  31. ^ a b c d e f Magowan 1979, p. 199.
  32. ^ van den Akker, Pieter. "Stand in het jongerenklassement – Etappe 22" [Standings in the youth classification – Stage 22]. (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  33. ^ Duker 1978, "Hot spot sprints classification".
  34. ^ "Gedupeerd comité dreigt met rechter Leiden lijdt door Peter Heerkens" [The injured committee is in danger of being led by judge Peter Heerkens]. Limburgs Dagblad (in Dutch). 30 June 1978. p. 29 – via Delpher.
  35. ^ Moore, Richard (13 June 2017). "Remembering Super Prestige Pernod, the season-long battle for title of best rider in the world". CyclingTips. Wade Wallace. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  36. ^ a b "Tour-puntig" [Tour-pointed]. Limburgs Dagblad (in Dutch). 30 June 1978. p. 9 – via Delpher.


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