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18650 battery

  • 18650 battery
  • 1865 cell
Panasonic 18650 batteries inside a laptop. Each cell has a capacity of 2450 mAh.
TypePower source
Working principleElectrochemical reactions, Electromotive force
First production 1994
Pin configuration Anode and Cathode
Electronic symbol
Battery symbol1

An 18650 battery[1] or 1865 cell[2] is a cylindrical lithium-ion battery common in electronic devices. The batteries measure 18 mm (0.71 in) in diameter by 65 mm (2.56 in) in length, giving them the name 18650.[3] The battery comes in many nominal voltages depending on the specific chemistry used.

Panasonic first developed the 18650 battery in 1994 "when there was a growing need for ever smaller and lighter storage batteries that could be used for ever longer periods of time".[4] They are now commonly used in power tools, electric bicycles, laptops, and electric vehicles.[5]


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.Find sources: "18650 battery chemistry" lithium-ion battery chemistry – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2023)

18650 batteries are most commonly lithium-based[citation needed].

By 2023, some sodium-ion variants were available in the 18mm x 65 mm cylindrical cell form factor as well.[6][better source needed]


A generic BMS for 4 series lithium-ion cells ('4s BMS')

18650 batteries are commonly used in packs, where a battery management system (BMS) is required, especially once cells age and perform differently. BMS boards balance the voltage of cells in series and protect against over- and under-discharge.

Products using 18650 cells

18650 battery cells are used in a wide variety of products from the 1990s through the 2020s, and is widely regarded as the most produced lithium-ion cell size.[7] 18650/1865 cells are used in many laptop computer batteries, cordless power tools, many electric cars, electric scooters,[8] most e-bikes, older portable powerbanks, electronic cigarettes,[9][10] portable fans, and LED flashlights. Nominal voltage is 3.6-3.7 V.[11][5]

In the electric automobile sector, they are used in the first three vehicles manufactured by Tesla, the first-generation Roadster (late 2000s), Model S (2012+), and the Model X (2015+).[12]

See also


  1. ^ August Neverman (12 November 2022). "Everything You Need to Know About the 18650 Battery". Common Sense Home.
  2. ^ Jake Christensen (2022-05-20). "Tesla Tab Talk". Bosch.
  3. ^ Zollo, Bob (19 September 2018). "The Standard 18650 Li-Ion Cell Isn't Always Standard". Electronic Design. 21807019. Retrieved 2023-07-04.
  4. ^ "Corporate History: 1994". Panasonic Holdings. Retrieved 2023-07-04.
  5. ^ a b Muenzel, Valentin; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hoog, Julian de; Brazil, Marcus; Thomas, Doreen A.; Mareels, Iven (2015-05-28). "A Comparative Testing Study of Commercial 18650-Format Lithium-Ion Battery Cells". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 162 (8): A1592. doi:10.1149/2.0721508jes. hdl:11343/55225. ISSN 1945-7111. S2CID 93255496.
  6. ^ "Sodium Ion 1250 mAh 50A 18650 Rechargeable Battery". SRIKO Batteries | Online store for electronics | Online battery store. Retrieved 2023-10-16.
  7. ^ "Most Popular Lithium-Ion Cells for Custom Battery Packs". Retrieved 2023-10-08.
  8. ^ "Xiaomi M365 Specifications". 31 July 2019. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Reddit Electronic Cigarette Wiki". Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  10. ^ "List of Battery Tests". e-cigarette-forum. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  11. ^ "HDS Systems: Frequently Asked Questions – Answers to questions about our flashlights and technologies". 2005-08-13. Archived from the original on 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  12. ^ "What Batteries Are Tesla Using In Its Electric Cars?". Inside EVs. 23 May 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
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18650 battery
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