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1310s

The 1310s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1310, and ended on December 31, 1319.

Events

1310

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

By place

Europe
Asia

By topic

Education

1311

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

1312

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

1313

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

By place

Asia

By topic

Literature
  • Wang Zhen, Chinese agronomist, government official and inventor of wooden-based movable type printing, publishes the Nong Shu ("Book of Agriculture").[51]
Religion

1314

January – March

April – June

  • April 4Exeter College in England is founded by Bishop Walter de Stapledon, as a school to educate clergy.
  • April 19Philip of Aunay and his older brother Walter de Aunay, convicted of adultery with Margaret of Burgundy and Blanch of Burgundy, respectively, both of whom are two daughters-in-law of King Philip IV of France, are executed. The manner of their execution is particularly brutal, following torture at the Place du Grand Martroy in Pontoise.[59]
  • April 20 – Pope Clement V dies after an 9-year pontificate at Roquemaure. During his reign, Clement reorganizes and centralizes the administration of the Catholic Church.[60]
  • May 1 – The papal conclave to elect a successor to Pope Clement V begins at the Carpentras Cathedral with 23 Roman Catholic cardinals in attendance, of whom the votes of 16 are necessary to elect a new Pontiff. The cardinals are divided into three factions, none of which have more than eight people, with a group from Italy (led by Guillaume de Mandagot), who want to move the papacy back to Rome; nine from Gascony, most of whom are relatives of Pope Clement (led by Arnaud de Pellegrue); and five from Provence (led by Berengar Fredol). The Italian cardinals walk out three months later after being harassed and threaten to elect their own Pope. The conclave will not meet again for two years, during which time there is no Pope.
  • May 14 – In Italy, more than 50 of the Fraticelli spiritualists of the Franciscan order of Tuscany are excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church by the Archbishop of Genoa after refusing to return to obedience to the Pope.[61]
  • June 17 – English forces led by King Edward II leave Berwick-upon-Tweed to march to Stirling Castle. They cross the River Tweed at Wark and Coldstream and march west across the flat Merse of Berwickshire towards Lauderdale. In Earlston, Edward uses a road through the Lammermuir Hills (an old Roman road) practical for the wheeled transport of a long supply train as well as the cavalry and infantry.[62]
  • June 19 – English forces march to the environs of Edinburgh, here Edward II waits for the wagon train of over 200 baggage and supply wagons – which straggle behind the long columns, to catch up. At the nearby port of Leith, English supply ships land stores for the army – who will be well rested before the 35-mile march that will bring them to Stirling Castle, before the deadline of June 24.[63]
  • June 23 – English forces approach the Scottish positions at Torwood, mounted troops under Gilbert de Clare are confronted by Scottish forces and repulsed. During the fierce fighting, Henry de Bohun is killed in a duel by King Robert the Bruce. Edward II and forward elements, mainly cavalry, encamp at Bannockburn. The baggage train and the majority of the forces arrive in the evening.[64]
  • June 24Battle of Bannockburn: Scottish forces (some 8,000 men) led by Robert the Bruce defeat the English army at Bannockburn. During the battle, the Scottish pikemen formed in schiltrons (or phalanx) repulses the English cavalry (some 2,000 men). Edward II flees with his bodyguard (some 500 men), while panic spreads among the remaining forces, turning their defeat into a rout.[65][66]
  • June 25 – Edward II arrives at Dunbar Castle, and takes safely a ship to Bamburgh in Northumberland. His mounted escort takes the coastal route from Dunbar to Berwick.[67]

July – September

October – December

By place

Europe
Africa
  • Amda Seyon I, known as "the Pillar of Zion" begins his reign as Emperor of Ethiopia, during which he expands into Muslim territory to the southeast. He enlarges his kingdom by incorporating a number of smaller states.[73]

By topic

Religion

1315

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

1316

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

By place

England

1317

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

Date unknown

  • A Hungarian document mentions for the first time Basarab I as leader of Wallachia (historians estimate he was on the throne since about 1310). Basarab will become the first voivode of Wallachia as an independent state, and founder of the House of Basarab (until 1352).[124]
  • The Great Famine of 1315–1317 comes to an end. Crop harvests return to normal – but it will be another five years before food supplies are completely replenished in Northern Europe. Simultaneously, the people are so weakened by diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Historians debate the toll, but it is estimated that 10–25% of the population of many cities and towns dies.[125]

1318

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

1319

January – March

April – June

  • April 19Philip I, Prince of Taranto, in his capacity as King of Albania, gives the title of Philip, Despot of Romania to his second eldest son Prince Philip II. Despite the mention of Romania, the despotate is a part of Albania, and the title gives rights of Philip II to Epirus in Greece.
  • May 8King Haakon V Magnusson of Norway dies at the age of 49 with no sons, leaving the throne empty until the nobles can agree on his successor. Havtore Jonsson manages a guardianship government until the nobles choose Magnus VII Eriksson, son of Haakon's daughter Ingeborg.[146]
  • June 20 – Within the Mongol Empire, Özbeg Khan of the Golden Horde (the Mongol-controlled area of what is now Uzbekistan and Russia) fights a battle against the Ilkhanate (the Mongol-controlled Middle East) in an attempt to expand the Golden Horde's territory, with a confrontation in Ilkhanate territory at Mianeh (now in Iran).[147] The troops of Özbeg Khan are supplemented with rebels led by an Ilkhanate prince, Yasa'ur. The Ilkhan Sultan, Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan and his general, Amir Chupan, lead the defenders to victory and take many of the rebel officers prisoner. Afterward, 36 emirs and seven viceroys are executed for treason, including Qurumushi of Georgia and Irinjin of Anatolia.
  • June 25Battle of the Vega of Granada: Castilian forces of 12,000 troops, led by the regents Don Pedro of Castile and Don Juan of Castile are defeated by a Moorish relief army at Granada during their attempt . Both regents are killed in the fighting. Pedro and Juan had summoned their Catilian vassals to assemble an expeditionary army in Córdoba, as part of an attempt to restore the deposed Sultan Nasr to the Granadan throne.[148]

July – September

October – December

  • October 17 – Prince Jaime of Aragon marries the 12-year-old Princess Leonor of Castile at Gandesa, but announces at the conclusion of the mass that "his decision was to never rule" the Kingdom of Aragon as a sovereign or even to remain in secular life, but to instead enter a monastery to pursue a life "under a religious rule."[153] King Jaime II informs Leonor's grandmother (Queen Maria de Molina) of the situation on October 22, and Queen Maria demands the return of Leonor immediately. Having renounced his royal rights, Prince Jaime finds afterward that he will not be allowed to enter a monastery either.
  • October 29 – (Gen'ō 1, 15th day of 9th month) Nichiin of Japan's Daimoku sect refutes all other sects of Buddhism during an interrogation by the Kamakura shogunate, permitting the sect to continue.
  • November 13 – King Eric VI of Denmark dies after a 33-year reign at Roskilde, leaving a vacancy that will not be filled until the January election of his brother Christopher II. During his rule, he attempts to control the routes of the Hanseatic League. The Hanse, an association of Baltic merchants, expels the English and Scots, and gains a monopoly of trade with Norway.[154]
  • December 21 – Representatives of England's King Edward II and Scotland's King Robert the Bruce sign a two-year truce.[151] Hostilities are to cease until Christmas Day, 1321, with the Scots to build no new castles in the sheriffdoms of Berwick , Roxburgh, and Dumfries, and the English were to either transfer the Harbottle garrison in Northumberland to Scotland, or to destroy it.[155] A long-term peace is still far off because of Edward's arrogant refusal to relinquish his claims of sovereignty over the Scots.[152]

Significant people

Births

1310

1311

1312

1313

1314

1315

1316

1317

1318

1319

Deaths

1310

1311

1312

1313

1314

1315

1316

1317

1318

1319

References

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