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Tammam Salam

Tammam Salam
Salam in 2016
Prime Minister of Lebanon
In office
15 February 2014 – 18 December 2016
DeputySamir Mouqbel
Preceded byNajib Mikati
Succeeded bySaad Hariri
In office
25 May 2014 – 31 October 2016
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byMichel Suleiman
Succeeded byMichel Aoun
Minister of Culture
In office
11 July 2008 – 9 November 2009
Prime MinisterFouad Siniora
Preceded byTarek Mitri
Succeeded bySalim Wardeh
Personal details
Born (1945-05-13) 13 May 1945 (age 78)
Beirut, Lebanon
Political partyFuture Movement
SpouseLama Badreddine
Alma materHaigazian University

Tammam Saeb Salam (Arabic: تمّام صائب سلام, Arabic pronunciation: [tamːaːm sˤaʔɪb salaːm]; born 13 May 1945) is a Lebanese politician who was the Prime Minister of Lebanon from February 2014 until December 2016. He also served as the acting President of Lebanon from May 2014 until October 2016 in his capacity as prime minister. He previously served in the government of Lebanon as minister of culture from 2008 to 2009.

Salam was tasked with forming a new government on 6 April 2013. He was one of the independent Sunni politicians.[1] He was close to the March 14 Alliance, and had good relations with the March 8 Alliance.[2] Salam was appointed Prime Minister on 15 February 2014.[3][4][5][6]

Early life and education

Salam was born into a prominent and politically powerful Sunni family in Beirut on 13 May 1945.[7] He is the eldest son of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Saeb Salam, who held the office several times since independence.[8][9][10] His mother, Tamima Mardam Beik, is of Syrian origin and hails from Damascus.[11][12] His grandfather, Salim Ali Salam, was one of the Lebanese officials who served during the Ottoman era and French era.[13][14] More specifically, he served as a Beirut deputy in the Ottoman parliament and was also the head of the Beirut municipality.[14] Tammam Salam has two older sisters and two younger brothers.[15]

Tammam Salam is a graduate of Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais and Haigazian University in Beirut.[16] He also holds an economics and management degree which he received in England.[17]

Early careers

Salam began his career as a businessman after graduation.[16] He joined the political field at the beginning of the 1970s.[16] He established the Pioneers of Reform Movement (Arabic: حركة روّاد الإصلاح) in 1973.[18] The objective of the movement was to follow a moderate policy in the middle of the turmoil in the country.[18] On the other hand, the movement was also regarded as the private militia group of Salam's father, Saeb Salam.[19] However, the movement was dissolved by Tammam Salam at the initial phase of the Lebanese civil war in order to avoid being part of the militant activities.[16]

In 1978, he joined the Makassed foundation, a non-profit charity organization in Beirut as a board member.[16] He became its president in 1982.[20] The leadership of the foundation was passed through generations in the Salam family.[21][22] Tammam Salam resigned as president of the Foundation in September 2000.[23] He is currently the honorary president of the Foundation.[11] Later, he also became the head of the Saeb Salam Foundation for culture and higher education.[24]

Later politics

In the general elections of 1992, Salam was a candidate, but later he withdrew his candidacy as a protest over the Syrian dominance in Lebanon.[14][25] His boycott aimed at supporting the Lebanese Christians in an attempt to preserve the sectarian balance in the country.[26] Salam was first elected to the parliament in the 1996 elections from Beirut as an independent candidate.[27][28] However Salam lost his seat in the general elections held in 2000.[29][30] He did not run for office in the 2005 general elections.[31]

He was appointed minister of culture in the cabinet led by Prime Minister Fouad Siniora on 11 July 2008.[27][32] Salam also won his seat in the general elections held in 2009.[33] He entered an electoral alliance with Saad Hariri and became part of his list in Beirut's third district.[34][35] Salam was an independent member of the Lebanese parliament.[36][37] In addition, he was part of the Lebanon First bloc in the parliament,[38][39] but not a member of any political party, making him a centrist figure.[40]

On 30 September 2015 President Tammam Salam addressed the United Nations General Assembly during general debates, attended other events both within the UN and beyond, met with various world leaders.[41]


U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meets with Tammam Salam at the Prime Minister's office in Beirut

Following the resignation of Najib Mikati as prime minister on 23 March 2013, Salam was designated as a consensus Prime Minister.[42] The 14 March Alliance officially nominated Salam as prime minister.[43] Salam was tasked with forming a government on 6 April 2013 after garnering 124 votes out of 128 parliament members.[44][45][46] On 15 February 2014, he announced the formation of a new government of 24 ministers.[3]

In 2014, Salam became the acting president after the Parliament failed to elected a new one to succeed Michel Suleiman. Two years later, Michel Aoun was elected an took office, which led to his resignation and the forming of a new government.[47]


Following the assassination of Rafik Hariri on 14 February 2005, Salam said "Playing with emotions is a very dangerous game in Lebanon, a game which Hariri himself never subscribed to." referring to mass demonstrations blaming Syria for the assassination in the country.[48]

Personal life

Salam is married to Lama Badreddine and has three children from a previous marriage.[11][17]


  1. ^ Sami Moubayed (3 August 2006). "Nasrallah and the three Lebanons". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 13 August 2006.((cite news)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  2. ^ "Hezbollah bloc to back Salam for Lebanon premier". Reuters. 5 April 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Lebanese PM unveils national unity cabinet". Al Jazeera. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  4. ^ "Lebanon Forms a Cabinet After 11 Months of Deadlock". The New York Times. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  5. ^ "Lebanon Cabinet formed after 10-month stalemate". USA Today. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  6. ^ "Lebanon forms new government after months of political deadlock". The Guardian. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  7. ^ R. Hrair Dekmejian (1975). Patterns of Political Leadership: Egypt, Israel, Lebanon. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-87395-291-0.
  8. ^ Sami Moubayed (n.d.). "From Father to Son in Beiruti Politics". Mid East Views.
  9. ^ Ranwa Yehia (27 January – 2 February 2000). "Salam bid farewell". Al Ahram Weekly. 466.
  10. ^ Hussein Dakroub (5 April 2013). "Salam emerges as Lebanon's next PM". The Daily Star. Beirut.
  11. ^ a b c "Lebanon names Salam as prime minister". The Guardian. Associated Press. 6 April 2013.
  12. ^ Bassem Mroue (5 April 2013). "Lebanon Names UK-Educated Lawmaker Prime Minister". ABC News. AP.
  13. ^ "Lebanon's March 14 camp endorses PM candidate". Al Jazeera. 5 April 2013.
  14. ^ a b c "How Tammam Salam Became a Consensual Candidate". Moulahazat. 5 April 2013.
  15. ^ Joseph A. Kéchichian (9 May 2008). "One Lebanon was his vision". Gulf News.
  16. ^ a b c d e Wassim Mroueh (5 April 2013). "Salam: Form, role of government more important than its head". The Daily Star.
  17. ^ a b "Consensus builds on new Lebanon PM Tamam Salam". Ahram Online. AFP. 5 April 2013.
  18. ^ a b Frank Tachau (1994). Political Parties of the Middle East and North Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 342. ISBN 9780313266492.
  19. ^ Samir Khalaf (1987). Lebanon's Predicament. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780231063784.
  20. ^ "Profiles: Lebanon's new government". Lebanon Wire. 12 July 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013.
  21. ^ "Families, not parties, dominate Lebanese politics". The Courier. Beirut. AP. 11 February 1983.
  22. ^ Hania Mourtada (7 April 2013). "Tamam Salam Asked to Form a Government in Lebanon". The New York Times.
  23. ^ "Salam heaps praise on Makassed". The Daily Star. 12 September 2000.
  24. ^ "Speakers". Arab Women Forum. 15–16 October 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  25. ^ "Many Lebanese back polls boycott". New Straits Times. 30 August 1992.
  26. ^ "Lebanon's Salam - consensus premier for tough times". Al Arabiya. 6 April 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Meet the government". Now Lebanon. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.
  28. ^ "Saeb Salam, 95, Former Lebanese Prime Minister". The New York Times. 23 January 2000.
  29. ^ "Murr Releases Official Results of Lebanon's Second Round of Elections". Al Bawaba. 5 September 2000.
  30. ^ Ranwa Yehia (7–13 September 2000). "A 'Future' premier". Al Ahram Weekly. 498. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012.
  31. ^ "Saad Hariri pledges to contest elections within opposition ranks". Lebanonwire. 10 May 2005. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013.
  32. ^ "Backgrounder: Lebanon's new cabinet line-up". Xinhua Daily. Beirut. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014.
  33. ^ "Saudi envoy calls for cabinet formed 'inside Lebanon'". The Daily Star. 14 July 2009. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013.
  34. ^ Therese Sfeir (8 May 2009). "Hariri vows Future Movement 'will follow path of peace'". The Daily Star.
  35. ^ Sami Moubayed (9 June 2009). "Hezbollah handed a stinging defeat". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009.((cite news)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  36. ^ "Salam says Sunnite sect would not fight with other sects". NNA. 21 March 2013.
  37. ^ "How MPs will vote". Now Lebanon. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  38. ^ Elie Hajj (4 April 2013). "Tammam Salam Likely March 14 Candidate for Lebanese Premier". Al-Monitor.
  39. ^ "Salam supports a technocratic cabinet". Now Lebanon. 28 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016.
  40. ^ Paul Salem (10 April 2013). "Lebanon Averts Crisis but New Prime Minister Faces Major Challenges". Carnegie Middle East.
  41. ^ "Addressing UN, Lebanese Prime Minister calls on world powers to end 'ongoing massacres'". UN News. 30 September 2015.
  42. ^ "Tammam Salam Meets Hariri, Prince Bandar". Naharnet. 4 April 2013.
  43. ^ "Hariri led group nominates Salam as PM". Turkish Weekly Journal. Beirut. 5 April 2013. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014.
  44. ^ Adam Pletts (6 April 2013). "Tammam Salam named new Lebanese prime minister". France 24.
  45. ^ "Tammam Salam named new Lebanese PM". Xinhua. Beirut. 6 April 2013. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013.
  46. ^ "Lebanon names Tammam Salam as new prime minister". BBC. 6 April 2013.
  47. ^ "Declaration of New Cabinet: 30 Ministers, 5 Innovative Ministries". National News Agency of Lebanon. 18 December 2016.
  48. ^ Omayma Abdel Latif (3–9 March 2005). "What next, Lebanon?". Al Ahram Weekly. 732. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013.
Political offices Preceded byTarek Mitri Minister of Culture 2008–2009 Succeeded bySalim Wardeh Preceded byNajib Mikati Prime Minister of Lebanon 2014–2016 Succeeded bySaad Hariri
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Tammam Salam
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