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Sphaeropteris

Sphaeropteris
Sphaeropteris cooperi in Blandys Garden, Madeira
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Division: Polypodiophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Cyatheales
Family: Cyatheaceae
Genus: Sphaeropteris
Bernh.[1]
Type species
Sphaeropteris medullaris
(Forster) Bernh.
Species

See text.

Synonyms[2]
  • Eatoniopteris J.Bommer
  • Fourniera J.Bommer
  • Schizocaena J.Sm.
  • Cyathea (Sphaeropteris) (Bernh.) Holttum
Sphaeropteris excelsa (syn. Cyathea brownii) in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney
Sphaeropteris intermedia in habitat in New Caledonia
Sphaeropteris medullaris in Auckland, New Zealand

Sphaeropteris is a genus of tree fern in the family Cyatheaceae. It has been treated as a subgenus within the genus Cyathea, but is accepted in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I).[3]

Description

[edit]

Species of Sphaeropteris have a treelike habit, usually with a single tall stem, and large fronds to 5 m (16 ft) or more in length. The stalk (stipe) of the frond is strawlike or purple in colour, with pale to brown scales. The sori (spore-bearing structures) are rounded, with or without indusia (covers).[4]

Sphaeropteris is now separated from the other genera in the family Cyatheaceae primarily on the basis of molecular phylogenetic studies.[3] However, the scales on the stalks (petioles) provide a morphological distinction. Sphaeropteris has scales without distinct margins, whereas the other genera have scales with distinct margins.[5][6]

Taxonomy

[edit]

The genus Sphaeropteris was erected by Johann Jakob Bernhardi in 1801.[7] It is placed in the family Cyatheaceae.[3] The division of the family into genera has had a long and controversial history.[6] Three or four clades have been suggested based on molecular phylogenetic studies. The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I) accepts three genera, related as shown in the cladogram below.[3] Sphaeropteris is sister to the remaining members of the family.

Cyatheaceae

Sphaeropteris

Cyathea

Alsophila (including Gymnosphaera)

Older sources, such as the New Zealand Organisms Register as of October 2000, place Sphaeropteris within a very broadly defined Cyathea.[8]

Phylogeny

[edit]

As of August 2019, the Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World accepted the following species:[2]

Phylogeny of Sphaeropteris[9][10]

section

S. novae-caledoniae (Mettenius ex Fournier) Tryon

S. auriculifera (Copeland) Tryon

S. tripinnata (Copeland) Tryon

S. truncata (Brackenridge) Tryon

S. aciculosa (Copeland) Tryon

S. australis (Presl) Tryon

S. celebica (Blume) Tryon

Fourniera

S. albifrons (Vieill. ex Fournier) Tryon

section

S. pulcherrima (Copeland) Tryon

S. philippinensis (Bak.) Tryon

S. megalosora (Copeland) Tryon

S. capitata (Copeland) Tryon

S. polypoda (Bak.) Tryon

S. squamulata (Bl.) Tryon

S. moluccana (Desvaux) Tryon

S. trichodesma (Scort. ex Beddome) Tryon

S. rosenstockii (Brause) Tryon

S. microlepidota (Copeland) Tryon

S. marginata (Brause) Tryon

S. runensis (van Alderwerelt van Rosenburgh) Tryon

S. setifera (Holttum) Tryon

S. tripinnatifida (Wallich ex Roxburgh) Tryon

S. werneri (Rosenstock) Tryon

S. brackenridgei (Mettenius) Tryon

S. procera (Brause) Tryon

S. propinqua (Mettenius) Tryon

Schizocaena
section

S. insignis (Eaton) Tryon

S. horrida (Liebmann) Tryon

S. quindiuensis (Karsten) Tryon

S. gardneri (Hooker) Tryon

S. brunei (Christ) Tryon

S. cuatrecasasii Tryon

S. elmeri (Copeland) Tryon

S. intermedia (Mettenius) Tryon

S. feani (Brown) Tryon

S. medullaris (Forster) Bernh.

S. brunoniana (Wallich ex Hooker 1844) Tryon

S. lepifera (Smith ex Hooker) Tryon

S. robusta (Moore ex Watts) Tryon

S. cooperi (von Mueller) Tryon

S. excelsa (Endl.) Tryon

S. persquamulifera (van Alderwerelt van Rosenburgh) Tryon

S. aeneifolia (van Alderwerelt van Rosenburgh) Tryon

S. atrox (Christensen) Tryon

S. tomentosissima (Copeland) Tryon

S. lunulata (Forster) Tryon

S. tenggerensis (Rosenstock) Tryon

S. angiensis (Gepp) Tryon

S. atrospinosa (Holttum) Tryon

S. glauca (Bl.) Tryon

S. mertensiana (Kunze) Tryon

S. nigricans (Mettenius) Tryon

S. pilulifera (Copeland) Tryon

S. felina (Roxburgh) Pichi Sermolli

S. vittata (Copeland) Tryon

Sphaeropteris

Other species include:

  • Sphaeropteris agatheti (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris albidosquamata (Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris albosetacea (Bedd.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris angustipinna (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris aramaganensis (Kaneh.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris arthropoda (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris assimilis (Hook.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris binuangensis (Alderw.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris carrii (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris crinita (Hook.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris curranii (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris discophora (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris elliptica (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris fugax (Alderw.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris fusca (Bak.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris inaequalis (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris insularum (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris integra (J.Sm.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris intramarginalis Windisch
  • Sphaeropteris ledermannii (Brause) Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris leucolepis (Mett.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris leucotricha (Christ) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris lockwoodiana P.G.Windisch
  • Sphaeropteris macarenensis (Alston) R. Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris magna (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris mollicula (Maxon) R. Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris moseleyi (Bak.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris obliqua (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris obscura (Scort.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris papuana (Ridl.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris parianensis P.G.Windisch
  • Sphaeropteris parksiae (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris parvifolia (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris parvipinna (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris pukuana (M.Kato) Lehnert & Coritico
  • Sphaeropteris robinsonii (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris samoensis (Brack.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris sarasinorum (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris senex (Alderw.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris sibuyanensis (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris stipitipinnula (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris strigosa (Christ) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris subsessilis (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris suluensis (Bak.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris teysmannii (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris tomentosa (Bl.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris trichophora (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris vaupelii (Copel.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris verrucosa (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris wallacei (Mett. ex Kuhn) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris womersleyi (Holtt.) R.M.Tryon
  • Sphaeropteris zamboangana (Copel.) R.M.Tryon

Distribution and habitat

[edit]

The native distribution of the genus Sphaeropteris extends from southern China down through eastern tropical Asia to New Zealand, with a separate area in Central America and north-western South America. Some species are also naturalized in Africa and western Australia.[1]

Species of Sphaeropteris are large plants and require space to grow. They usually prefer less shaded conditions than species of Alsophila. They are found in rain forests and tropical montane forests, often in clearings or on the margins, from the canopy layer down to the understorey layer. They are also found in ravines, swamps and disturbed areas.[4]

References

[edit]
  1. ^ a b "Sphaeropteris Bernh.", Plants of the World Online, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2019-08-23
  2. ^ a b Hassler, Michael & Schmitt, Bernd (June 2019), Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World, vol. 8, retrieved 2019-08-22
  3. ^ a b c d PPG I (2016), "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns", Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 54 (6): 563–603, doi:10.1111/jse.12229, S2CID 39980610
  4. ^ a b Zhang, Xianchun & Nishida, Harufumi. "Alsophila". In Wu, Zhengyi; Raven, Peter H. & Hong, Deyuan (eds.). Flora of China (online). eFloras.org. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  5. ^ Weigand, Anna & Lehnert, Marcus (2016), "The scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae-Polypodiopsida) of Brazil" (PDF), Acta Botanica Brasilica, 30 (3): 336–350, doi:10.1590/0102-33062016abb0065
  6. ^ a b Korall, Petra; Conant, David S.; Metzgar, Jordan S.; Schneider, Harald & Pryer, Kathleen M. (2007). "A molecular phylogeny of scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 94 (5): 873–886. doi:10.3732/ajb.94.5.873. PMID 21636456. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  7. ^ "Sphaeropteris Bernh". The International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  8. ^ "Sphaeropteris Bernh.", NZOR New Zealand Organisms Register, October 2000, retrieved 2019-09-27
  9. ^ Nitta, Joel H.; Schuettpelz, Eric; Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; Iwasaki, Wataru; et al. (2022). "An Open and Continuously Updated Fern Tree of Life". Frontiers in Plant Science. 13: 909768. doi:10.3389/fpls.2022.909768. PMC 9449725. PMID 36092417.
  10. ^ "Tree viewer: interactive visualization of FTOL". FTOL v1.5.0 [GenBank release 256]. 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
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Sphaeropteris
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