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Carlos de España

Carlos de España
Born15 August 1775
Ramefort (Haute-Garonne), France
Died2 November 1836(1836-11-02) (aged 61)
Organyà, Spain
AllegianceSpain Kingdom of Spain
Service/branch Spanish Army
RankLieutenant General
Battles/warsBattle of the Gebora (1809)
Battle of Albuera (1811)
Siege of Badajoz (1812)
Battle of Salamanca (1812)
Battle of Vitoria (1813)
Siege of Pamplona (1813)

Carlos de España, 1st Conde de España[1] (15 August 1775 – 1839), also known as Charles d'Espagnac or, from 1817, Carlos d'Espagne,[2] was a French-born Spanish general who saw distinguished service in the Peninsular War, and as governor of Barcelona, was an opponent of Spanish liberals. In his letters and dispatches, Wellington refers to him as Carlos de España.[3]

Early career

Peninsular War

He fought at the Battle of the Gebora, and was wounded fighting under the orders of General Beresford at the Battle of Albuera.[1] Following that battle, he was promoted to field marshal.[1]

On 1 June 1811, and now a brigadier general, Carlos de España's 1st Division, part of General Francisco Javier Castaños's 5th Army, or Army of Estremadura, numbered 3,476 men present under arms.[4]

In March 1812, he was wounded again at the Siege of Badajoz,[1] fighting under the orders of the then Earl of Wellington, under whose orders he also fought at Salamanca. At this battle however, Wellington's decisive victory over Marshal Marmont's army was tainted by Carlos de España having withdrawn, without orders and without informing Wellington, his detachment from the bridge at Alba de Tormes, thereby providing the retreating French troops with an escape route, which Wellington had counted on being blocked.[5]

Following Salamanca, Wellington appointed him governor of Madrid,[1] city he was ordered to abandon, along with Hill's troops, on Wellington's orders, just hours before the French advance cavalry entered the city again the following 1 November.[6]

He was again wounded at the Siege of Pamplona in 1813.[1]

He saw further action at the Battle of Bayonne and at Vitoria, where he was again wounded.[7]

Post-war career

He was murdered by Catalan Carlists while crossing a bridge over the river Segre, near Organya, and his body was thrown into the river with a stone around his neck.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f (in Spanish). Bullón de Mendoza y Gómez de Valugera, Alfonso. "Carlos de España". Real Academia de la Historia. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  2. ^ a b (in Spanish). Losada, Juan Carlos. "El fanático reaccionario". El País. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  3. ^ Wellesley, Arthur (1836) The Dispatches of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K. G. During His Various Campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, and France: Peninsula, 1809-1813, p. 578. J. Murray. Google Books. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  4. ^ Oman, Charles (1911). A History of the Peninsular War, Vol. IV, p. 637. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  5. ^ Oman, Charles (1914). A History of the Peninsular War, Vol. V, pp. 414–415. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  6. ^ A History of the Peninsular War, Vol. VI, p. 106. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Internet Archive. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  7. ^ Álvaro Garrido, José Antonio et al. (2008) (in Spanish) Rincones de historia española: Episodios históricos, fabulosos y desconocidos a través de los siglos, p. 103. EDAF. Google Books. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
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Carlos de España
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