For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Pa-O National Liberation Army.

Pa-O National Liberation Army

Pa-O National Liberation Army
ပအိုဝ်ႏစွိုးခွိုꩻလွစ်ထန်ႏရေꩻတပ်မတောႏ
Leaders
  • Khun Ti Saung (2007-2009)
  • Khun Okka (2009-2013)[1]
  • Khun Myint Tun (2013-2018)
  • Khun Thurein (2019- present)[2]
Military leader
  • Khun Thurein (2007-2017)
  • Khun Kyaw Htin (2017- present)
Dates of operationModern: 2009 (2009)–present
Post-independence: 1949 (1949)–1976 (1976)
HeadquartersCamp Laybwer, Mawkmai Township, Shan State, Myanmar
Active regionsShan State
Myanmar-Thailand border
IdeologyPa-O nationalism
Federalism
Size500+
Allies United Wa State Army
Shan State Army - North (2024-present)
People's Defence Force (2024-present)
Karenni Nationalities Defence Force (2024-present)
OpponentsState opponents:

 Myanmar

Union of Myanmar (until 2011)
Non-state opponents:

Pa-O National Army
Battles and warsInternal conflict in Myanmar
Preceded by
Pa-O People's Liberation Organization (PPLO/PPLA)
Shan State Nationalities People's Liberation Organization

The Pa-O National Liberation Army (Pa'o Karen: ပအိုဝ်ႏစွိုးခွိုꩻလွစ်ထန်ႏရေꩻတပ်မတောႏ, Burmese: ပအိုဝ်းအမျိုးသားလွတ်မြောက်ရေးတပ်မတော်; abbreviated PNLA) is a Pa-O insurgent group in Myanmar (Burma). It is the armed wing of the Pa-O National Liberation Organisation.[2][3] The PNLA, along with other smaller Pa-O military groups, administers the Pa-O Self-Administered Zone, which consists of three townships in southern Shan State: Hopong, Hsi Hseng, and Pinlaung townships.[4]

The PNLA signed a "Five-Point State-Level Agreement"[5] and an "Eight-Point Union-Level Agreement"[6] with the government of Myanmar on 25 August 2012.

History

From 7–9 December 2009, a Pa-O National Conference was held in the Pa-O Self-Administered Zone, and the Pa-O People's Liberation Organization (PPLO), led by Colonel Khun Okkar, and Shan State Nationalities People's Liberation Organization, led by Brigadier General Khun Ti Soung, merged and established the Pa-O National Liberation Army (PNLA) and its political wing, the Pa-O National Liberation Organisation (PNLO). Group leaders then drafted the PNLO constitution, which became the de facto constitution for the Pa-O SAZ.[2] Attendees of the conference included members of the Pa-O Youth Organization, the Pa-Oh Labor Union and individuals such as U Khun Myint Tun (Thaton MP in the 1990 general election) and Khun Tin Swe (member of the NCUB). Khun Okker was elected as chairman, and Khun Ti Soung as vice-chairman. The founding members chose the name Pa-O National Liberation Army (PNLO) to honour the former PNLO's start of and commitment to the "third revolution".[2]

The first PNLO/A congress was held at Laybwer military camp on 16 May 2013, and concluded on 20 May 2013. New central committee members were elected, and Khun Myint Tun was appointed the new chairman. Previous chairmen Khun Okker and Khun Ti Soung have since become patrons.[2]

On 22 January 2024, clashes between the Myanmar military regime and the PNLO/A broke out in Sam Hpu village in Hopong Township.[7]

On 24 January 2024, the PNLA, local PDF forces, and the KNDF attacked the PNO/Junta-controlled town of Hsi Hseng. The Tatmadaw responded with airstrikes and shelling.[8]

On 26 January 2024, the PNLO formally revoked their participation in the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement and pledged to help the NUG replace the Junta with a federal system. The PNLO implored the Pa-O National Organization to switch sides under the promise that they will not be attacked.[9]

Ceasefire agreements

On 25 August 2012, the government and PNLA agreed on a "Five-Point State-Level Agreement"[5] and an "Eight-Point Union-Level Agreement".[6]

The state level peacemaking groups and the PNLA agreed with the following five points:[5]

  • 1. Both sides are to cease attacks from 25 August 2012 onwards.
  • 2. Both sides are to remain in their own respective designated areas, which are the territory they currently occupy.
  • 3. Both sides are to not distribute arms or materiel to groups outside their designated areas.
  • 4. Unarmed liaison offices are to be established for both sides at Taunggyi, Hsihseng and Maukmai (mutually agreed on by both sides).
  • 5. Official Pa-O representative groups are to be created to hold talks with state level peacemaking groups, and to start further union level peace talks during a period of three months beginning on 25 August 2012.

The Union Peacemaking Work Committee and the PNLA agreed with the following eight points:[6]

  • 1. To further discuss on ceasefires and how to strengthen and further develop them.
  • 2. To coordinate on matters related to code of conduct and discipline amongst officials.
  • 3. To provide assistance by the Union Peacemaking Work Committee for running liaison offices.
  • 4. To continue to provide the locations of PNLO/PNLA troops to the government.
  • 5. To cooperate in the fight against narcotics (illicit drugs).
  • 6. To coordinate on matters related to media.
  • 7. To coordinate on matters related to food, clothing and shelter of soldiers.
  • 8. To coordinate on matters related to public security and basic agriculture.

References

  1. ^ "Myanmar Creates Team to Manage Donor Funds For Peace Efforts". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e "PNLO". Myanmar Peace Monitor. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  3. ^ "Armed ethnic groups". Myanmar Peace Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  4. ^ South, Ashley (2008). Ethnic Politics in Burma: States of Conflict. Oxon: Routledge. pp. 122–124. ISBN 978-0-203-89519-1. Archived from the original on 31 August 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  5. ^ a b c "Five-Point State-Level Agreement with the Pa-O National Liberation Organization". Burma Partnership. New Light of Myanmar (original). 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "Eight-Point Union-Level Agreement with the Pa-O National Liberation Organization". Burma Partnership. New Light of Myanmar (original). 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  7. ^ Firefight Erupts as Myanmar Junta Troops Halt PNLO Arms Convoy in Shan State. Brian Wei. January 23, 2024. The Irrawaddy Archived January 24, 2024, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Myanmar Military Now at War With Ethnic Pa-O Army And Allies in Southern Shan State. Brian Wei. January 26, 2024. The Irrawaddy Archived January 26, 2024, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Ethnic Pa-O Group Exits Myanmar Peace Talks, Formally Joins War Against Dictatorship. Yuzana. January 27, 2024. The Irrawaddy. Archived January 27, 2024, at the Wayback Machine
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Pa-O National Liberation Army
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?