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Open-mid front unrounded vowel

Open-mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ
IPA Number303
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɛ
Unicode (hex)U+025B
X-SAMPAE
Braille⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)

The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, ɛ.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Akan (Twi) ɛyɛ [ɛjɛ] 'it is good/fine' See Akan phonology
Arabic See Imāla
Armenian Eastern[2] էջ/ēj [ɛd͡ʒ] 'page'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed] Typically transcribed in IPA with æ.
Bengali[4] /ek [ɛk] 'one' Alternative transcription and phonetic realisation of [æ] and an allophone of [e]. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5] пет/pet [pɛt̪] 'five' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6] set [ˈsɛt] 'seven' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin[7] / tiān [tʰi̯ɛn˥] 'sky' Height varies between mid and open depending on the speaker. See Standard Chinese phonology
Chuvash ҫепĕç ['ɕɛp̬ɘɕ] 'gentle, tender'
Czech[8][9] led [lɛt] 'ice' In Bohemian Czech, this vowel varies between open-mid front [ɛ], open-mid near-front [ɛ̠] and mid near-front [ɛ̝̈].[8] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[10][11] frisk [ˈfʁɛsk] 'fresh' Most often transcribed in IPA with æ. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[12] bed [bɛt] 'bed' See Dutch phonology
The Hague[13] jij [jɛ̞ː] 'you' Corresponds to [ɛi] in standard Dutch.
English General American[14] bed [bɛd] 'bed'
Northern England[15] May be somewhat lowered.[15]
Received Pronunciation[16][17] Older RP speakers pronounce a closer vowel []. See English phonology
General Australian Realization of [e], particularly by younger speakers. See Australian English phonology
Scottish[18]
Cockney[19] fat [fɛt] 'fat'
Singaporean[20]
New Zealand[21] See New Zealand English phonology
Some Broad
South African speakers[22]
Other speakers realize this vowel as [æ] or [a]. See South African English phonology
Belfast[23] days [dɛːz] 'days' Pronounced [iə] in closed syllables; corresponds to [eɪ] in RP.
Zulu[24] mate [mɛt] 'mate' Speakers exhibit a met-mate merger.
Faroese[25] frekt [fɹɛʰkt] 'greedy' See Faroese phonology
French[26][27] bête [bɛt̪] 'beast' See French phonology
Galician ferro [ˈfɛro̝] 'iron' See Galician phonology
Georgian[28] დი/gedi [ɡɛdi] 'swan'
German Standard[29][30] Bett [b̥ɛt] 'bed' Also described as mid [ɛ̝].[31] See Standard German phonology
Franconian accent[32] oder [ˈoːdɛ] 'or' Used instead of [ɐ].[32] See Standard German phonology
Coastal Northern accents[32]
Swabian accent[33] fett [fɛt] 'fat' Contrasts with the close-mid [e].[33] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[34] See [z̥ɛː] 'lake' Close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the near-open [æː].[35] See Standard German phonology
Hindustani Hindi रहना [ˈɾɛɦna] 'to stay' See Hindustani phonology
Urdu رہنا
Hungarian lesz [ˈlɛs] 'will be' Allophone of [æ].
Italian[36] bene [ˈbɛːne] 'good' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[37] mbre [ˈᵐbɾɛ] 'with'
Korean 매미 / maemi [mɛːmi] 'cicada' See Korean phonology
Kurdish Kurmanji (Northern) hevde [hɛvdɛ] 'seventeen' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) هه‌ڤده/hevde [hɛvdæ]
Pehlewî (Southern) [hɛvdæ]
Limburgish[38][39][40] crème [kʀ̝ɛːm] 'cream' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian mesti [mɛs̪t̪ɪ] 'throw' See Lithuanian phonology
Lower Sorbian[41] serp [s̪ɛrp] 'sickle'
Luxembourgish[42] Stär [ʃtɛːɐ̯] 'star' Allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/.[42] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian[43][44] Standard мед/med [ˈmɛd̪] 'honey' See Macedonian language § Vowels
Malay Standard paling [pälɛŋ] 'to play' Possible realisation of /i/ and /e/ in closed final syllables. See Malay phonology
Negeri Sembilan cepat [cɔpɛɁ] 'quick' See Negeri Sembilan Malay
Kelatan-Pattani ayam [äjɛː] 'chicken' See Kelatan-Pattani
Terengganu biasa [bɛsə] 'normal' See Terengganu Malay
Perak mata [matɛ] 'eye' See Perak Malay
Norman Jersey affaûrder [afɔrˈdɛ] 'to afford'
Norwegian Sognamål[45] pest [pʰɛst] 'plague' See Norwegian phonology
Occitan grèga [ˈɣɾɛɣɔ] 'Greek' See Occitan phonology
Polish[46] ten [t̪ɛn̪] 'this one' (nom. m.) See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[47][48] pé [ˈpɛ] 'foot' Stressed vowel might be lower [æ]. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨e⟩ allophones, such as [ e ɪ i ɨ], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[49] tempo [ˈt̪ɛ̃mpu] 'time' Timbre differences for nasalized vowels are mainly kept in European Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[50] vede [ˈvɛɟe] '(he) sees' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[51] это/eto [ˈɛt̪ə] 'this' See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[52] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.
Slovene met [mɛ́t] 'throw' (n.) See Slovene phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[53] las madres [læ̞ː ˈmæ̞ːð̞ɾɛː] 'the mothers' Corresponds to [] in other dialects, but in these dialects they are distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[53]
Swahili shule [ʃulɛ] 'school'
Swedish Central Standard[54] ät [ɛ̠ːt̪] 'eat' (imp.) Somewhat retracted.[54] See Swedish phonology
Tagalog peke [ˈpɛxɛʔ] 'fake' See Tagalog phonology
Telugu చే [tʃɛːa] 'Fish'
మే [mɛːka] 'Goat'
Thai ตร / trae [trɛː˧] 'horn (instrument)'
Turkish[55][56] ülke [y̠l̠ˈcɛ] 'country' Allophone of /e/ described variously as "word-final"[55] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[56] See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[57] день/den' [dɛnʲ] 'day' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[41][58] čelo [ˈt͡ʃɛlɔ] 'calf'
Welsh nesaf [nɛsav] 'next' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian[59] beppe [ˈbɛpə] 'grandma' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[60] sẹ̀ [ɛ̄sɛ] 'leg'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Khan (2010), p. 222.
  5. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  7. ^ Lin (2007), p. 65.
  8. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  9. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 228.
  10. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  11. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  12. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 136.
  14. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a).
  15. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  16. ^ Schmitt (2007), pp. 322–323.
  17. ^ "Received Pronunciation". British Library. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  18. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  19. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  20. ^ Bet Hashim & Brown (2000).
  21. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
  22. ^ Lanham (1967), p. 9.
  23. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  24. ^ "Rodrik Wade, MA Thesis, Ch 4: Structural characteristics of Zulu English". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
  25. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  26. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  27. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  28. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  29. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 82, 107.
  30. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  31. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  32. ^ a b c Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 40.
  33. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  34. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  35. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  36. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  37. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  38. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  39. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  40. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  41. ^ a b Stone (2002), p. 600.
  42. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  43. ^ Friedman (2001:10)
  44. ^ Lunt (1952:10–11)
  45. ^ Haugen (2004), p. 30.
  46. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  47. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  48. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira Archived 2014-12-15 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP
  50. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  51. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 41.
  52. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  53. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  54. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  55. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  56. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  57. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  58. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  59. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  60. ^ Bamgboṣe (1966), p. 166.

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Open-mid front unrounded vowel
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