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New South Wales Legislative Assembly

Legislative Assembly
58th Parliament
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Founded22 May 1856; 167 years ago (22 May 1856)
Leadership
Greg Piper[1], Independent
since 9 May 2023
Deputy Speaker
Sonia Hornery[2], Labor
since 9 May 2023
Ron Hoenig, Labor
since 5 April 2023
Government Whip
Nathan Hagarty, Labor
since 17 October 2023
Deputy Government Whip
Janelle Saffin, Labor
since 3 May 2023
Manager of Opposition Business
Alister Henskens, Liberal
since 3 May 2023
Opposition Whip
Adam Crouch, Liberal
since 21 April 2023
Structure
Seats93
Political groups
Government (45)
  •   Labor (45)

Opposition (36)

Crossbench (12)

Length of term
4 years
Elections
Optional preferential voting
Last election
25 March 2023
Next election
2027
Meeting place
Legislative Assembly Chamber
Parliament House, Sydney,
New South Wales, Australia
Website
NSW Legislative Assembly

The New South Wales Legislative Assembly is the lower of the two houses of the Parliament of New South Wales, an Australian state. The upper house is the New South Wales Legislative Council. Both the Assembly and Council sit at Parliament House in the state capital, Sydney. The Assembly is presided over by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.

The Assembly has 93 members, elected by single-member constituency, which are commonly known as seats. Voting is by the optional preferential system.[4]

NSW first Legislative Assembly – 1880

Members of the Legislative Assembly have the post-nominals MP after their names.[5] From the creation of the assembly up to about 1990, the post-nominals "MLA" (Member of the Legislative Assembly) were used.

The Assembly is often called the bearpit on the basis of the house's reputation for confrontational style during heated moments and the "savage political theatre and the bloodlust of its professional players"[6] attributed in part to executive dominance.[7]

History

The Legislative Assembly chamber during debate on the Greater Newcastle Bill, 19 November 1937; Speaker Reginald Weaver presiding with the Member for Newcastle, Frank Hawkins speaking.

The Legislative Assembly was created in 1856 with the introduction of a bicameral parliament for the Crown Colony of New South Wales.[8] In the beginning, only men were eligible to be members of the Assembly, and only around one half of men were able to pass the property or income qualifications required to vote. Two years later, the Electoral Reform Act, which was passed despite the opposition of the Legislative Council, saw the introduction of a far more democratic system, allowing any man who had been resident in the colony for six months the right to vote, and removing property requirements to stand as a candidate.[8] Following Australia's federation in 1901, the New South Wales parliament became a State legislature. Women were granted the right to vote in 1902, and gained the right to be members of the Assembly in 1918,[9] with the first successful candidate being elected in 1925.[10]

Chamber

The Legislative Assembly sits in the oldest legislative chamber in Australia. Originally built for the Legislative Council in 1843, it has been in continuous use since 1856. The colour of the Legislative Assembly chamber is green, which follows the British tradition for lower houses.[11]

Function

Most legislation is initiated in the Legislative Assembly. The party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party subsequently becomes Premier of New South Wales, and their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios. As Australian political parties traditionally vote along party lines, most legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the Legislative Assembly.[4]

As with the federal parliament and other Australian states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Elections are held every four years on the fourth Saturday in March, as the result of a 1995 referendum to amend the New South Wales Constitution.[4][b] An early election can only be held if the government fails a vote of no confidence and no alternative government can command a vote of confidence.[13]

Current distribution of seats

Party Seats held Current Assembly
Labor 45                                                                                          
Liberal 25                                                  
National 11                      
Greens 3      
Independent 9                  
  • 47 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation.

Administrative officers

Clerk

The clerk of the house of the NSW Legislative Assembly is the senior administrative officer. The clerk advises the speaker of the Assembly and members of parliament on matters of parliamentary procedure and management. The office is modelled on the clerk of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The following have served as clerks:

  • Richard O’Connor
  • Charles Thompson
  • Oliver Kelly
  • Stephen Jones
  • Frederick Webb CMG
  • Richard Arnold
  • William Mowle
  • Sydney Boydell
  • William Rupert McCourt CMG
  • Frederick Langley
  • Harry Robbins MC
  • Allan Pickering CBE
  • Ivor Vidler CBE
  • Ronald Ward
  • Douglas Wheeler
  • Grahame Cooksley
  • Russell Grove PSM
  • Ronda Miller
  • Helen Minnican[14]

Serjeant-at-arms

The ceremonial duties of the serjeant-at-arms are as the custodian of the mace, the symbol of the authority of the House and the speaker, and as the messenger for formal messages from the Legislative Assembly to the Legislative Council. The serjeant has the authority to remove disorderly people, by force if necessary, from the Assembly or the public or press galleries on the instructions of the speaker. The administrative duties of the serjeant include allocation of office accommodation, furniture and fittings for members' offices, co-ordination of car transport for members, mail and courier services for the House, security for the House and arrangements for school visits. Once a meeting has started in an Assembly, the serjeant will usually stand at the door to keep authority and make sure no one else comes in or out. The following have served as serjeant-at-arms:

  • Laurence Joseph Harnett [15]
  • John Mackenzie Webb
  • Harry Robbins
  • Ivor Percy Kidd Vidler
  • Hubert Pierre Scarlett
  • Ronald Edward Ward
  • Frederick Augustine Mahony
  • William Geoffery Luton
  • Peter John McHugh
  • William Christie[16]
  • Leslie Gönye
  • Simon Johnston

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Current independent MLAs: * Roy Butler (Barwon), Helen Dalton (Murray), Phil Donato (Orange), Alex Greenwich (Sydney), Joe McGirr (Wagga Wagga), Michael Regan (Wakehurst), Judy Hannan (Wollondilly), Gareth Ward (Kiama) and Greg Piper (Lake Macquarie)
  2. ^ Between 1984 and 1995, the maximum term of the Assembly was four years, but could be dissolved earlier.[12]

References

  1. ^ "The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly". www.parliament.nsw.gov.au. Parliament of New South Wales. Retrieved 7 April 2023.
  2. ^ "Other Office Holders". www.parliament.nsw.gov.au. Parliament of New South Wales.
  3. ^ Raper, Ashleigh (12 December 2022). "Shooters, Fishers and Farmers MPs resign from party over behaviour of leader Robert Borsak". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  4. ^ a b c "Role and History of the Legislative Assembly". About us – Legislative Assembly. Parliament of New South Wales. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  5. ^ "The Role of Members of Parliament". Members. Parliament of New South Wales. 28 February 2008. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  6. ^ Dusevic, Tom (4 December 2009). "Tawdry cast sits out dance of death playing in bearpit". The Australian. News Limited. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  7. ^ Grove, Russell D. (Autumn 2010). "Being in Opposition – Opportunities Lost" (PDF). Australasian Parliamentary Review. 25 (1). Australasian Study of Parliament Group: 185–191. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  8. ^ a b "1856 to 1889 – Responsible Government and Colonial Development". System of Government – History of Democracy. Parliament of New South Wales. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  9. ^ "1901 to 1918 – The Early Federal Period and the First World War". System of Government – History of Democracy. Parliament of New South Wales. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  10. ^ "1919 to 1929 – The Twenties". System of Government – History of Democracy. Parliament of New South Wales. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  11. ^ "Parliament of New South Wales brochure" (PDF). Educational Publications. Parliament of New South Wales. 7 March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  12. ^ Constitution (Legislative Assembly) Amendment Act 1981 (NSW)
  13. ^ "Constitution Act".
  14. ^ "Other Office Holders". www.parliament.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  15. ^ "DEATH OF MR. HARNETT. Popular Sergeant at Arms". The Sydney Morning Herald. NSW: National Library of Australia. 30 September 1911. p. 17. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  16. ^ "DEATH OF MR. CHRISTIE". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW: 1842–1954). NSW: National Library of Australia. 5 October 1922. p. 10. Retrieved 28 November 2013.

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New South Wales Legislative Assembly
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