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List of ethnic cleansing campaigns

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This article lists incidents that have been termed ethnic cleansing by some academic or legal experts. Not all experts agree on every case, particularly since there are a variety of definitions of the term ethnic cleansing. When claims of ethnic cleansing are made by non-experts (e.g. journalists or politicians) they are noted.

There is significant scholarly disagreement around the definition of ethnic cleansing and which events fall under this classification.[1]

Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern periods

Antiquity

  • c. 132–136 AD: During the Third Jewish-Roman War, Roman forces under the command of Hadrian killed over 580,000 Jews and razed over 985 Judean villages. The campaign has been described as an act of ethnic cleansing and genocide. The Jews are expelled from Israel.[2][3]

Early modern period

  • 1071 - 1453 AD: The Turkish invasion and settlement of Anatolia (now Turkey), caused the displacement and replacement of the previous Greek and Armenian inhabited populations of Anatolia.
  • 1492–1614 AD: Jews and Muslims in Spain who refused to convert to Catholicism were expelled, beginning in 1492 following the Alhambra Decree.[4][5][6]
  • 1492 - 1800s: Indigenous Americans of North America and South America are dispossessed and killed (or die of introduced diseases) by British, Spanish and Portuguese colonialists and become a minority in their homelands.
  • 1556–1620: Plantations of Ireland. Land in Laois, Offaly, Munster and parts of Ulster was seized by the English crown and colonised with English settlers.[7] Ireland has been described as a "testing ground" for British colonialism, with the confiscation of land and expulsion of native Irish from their homelands being a rehearsal for the expulsion of the Native Americans by British settlers.[8][9]
After Cromwell's conquest of Ireland, huge areas of land were confiscated and the Irish Catholics were banished to the lands of Connacht.
  • c. 1652 AD: After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and Act of Settlement in 1652, the whole post-war Cromwellian settlement of Ireland has been characterised by historians such as Mark Levene and Alan Axelrod as ethnic cleansing, in that it sought to remove Irish Catholics from the eastern part of the country, but others such as the historian Tim Pat Coogan have described the actions of Cromwell and his subordinates as genocide.[10]
  • 1755–1757 AD: The Dzungar genocide (Chinese: 準噶爾滅族; lit. 'extermination of the Dzungar tribe') was the mass extermination of the Mongol Dzungar people by the Qing dynasty.[11] The genocide was perpetrated by Manchu generals of the Qing army, supported by Turkic oasis dwellers (now known as Uyghurs) who rebelled against Dzungar rule. Some scholars estimate that about 80% of the Dzungar population, or around 500,000 to 800,000 people, were killed by a combination of warfare and disease during or after the Qing conquest.
  • 1755–1764 AD: During the French and Indian War, the Nova Scotia colonial government, aided by New England troops, instituted a systematic removal of the French Catholic Acadian population of Nova Scotia – eventually removing thousands of settlers from the region and relocating them to areas in the Thirteen Colonies, Britain and France. Many eventually moved and settled in Louisiana and became known as Cajuns. Many scholars have described the subsequent death of over 50% of the deported Acadian population as an ethnic cleansing.[12]
  • 1788 - 1900s : Indigenous Australians are dispossessed and killed (or die of introduced diseases) by British colonialists and become a minority in their homelands.

19th century

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Portrait of Circassian refugees evicting their towns and villages during the Circassian genocide. Russian Empire massacred and forcibly deported between 95-97% of all Circassians; through military campaigns designated by the Russian army as “ochishchenie” (cleansing).[13][14]

20th century

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1900s–1910s

1920s–1930s

Greek refugees from Smyrna, 1922
Deportation of the Soviet Koreans in 1937
  • In 1920–21, the Greek army on the Yalova-Gemlik Peninsula burned dozens of Turkish/Muslim villages, engaging in large-scale violence and ethnic cleansing.[56]
  • The population exchange between Greece and Turkey has been described as an ethnic cleansing.[57] Over 1.2 million ethnic Greeks were expelled from Turkey in 1922-1924 while Greece expelled 400,000 Muslims. In 1928, 1,104,216 Ottoman Greek refugees were still living in Greece.[58]
  • Pacification of Libya, Italian authorities committed ethnic cleansing in the Cyrenaica region of Libya by forcibly removing and relocating 100,000 members of the Cyrenaican indigenous population from their valuable land and property that was slated to be given to Italian settlers.[59]
  • The Chinese Kuomintang Generals Ma Qi and Ma Bufang launched campaigns of expulsion in Qinghai and Tibet against ethnic Tibetans. The actions of these Generals have been called Genocidal by some authors.[60][verification needed]
  • Authors Uradyn Erden Bulag called the events that follow as a Genocide while David Goodman named them ethnic cleansing: The Republic of China supported Ma Bufang when he launched seven extermination expeditions into Golog, eliminating thousands of Tibetans.[61] Some Tibetans counted the number of times he attacked them, remembering the seventh attack which made their lives impossible.[62] Ma was highly anti-communist, and he and his army wiped out many Tibetans in the northeast and eastern Qinghai, and they also destroyed Tibetan Buddhist Temples.[63][64][65]
  • The Mexican Repatriation from 1929 to 1939 in which mass deportations and repatriations of Mexicans and Mexican Americans occurred in response to poverty and nativist fears which were triggered by the Great Depression in the United States has been called ethnic cleansing. An estimated forty to sixty percent of the 355,000 to 2 million people who were repatriated were birthright U.S. citizens – an overwhelming number of them were children. Voluntary repatriations were much more common than deportations.[66][67][68] Legal scholar Kevin Johnson States that it meets modern legal standards for ethnic cleansing, arguing it involved the forced removal of an ethnic minority by the government.[69]
  • The deportation of 172,000 Soviet Koreans by the Soviet government in September 1937, in which Koreans were moved away from the Korean border and deported to Central Asia, where they were made to do forced labor.[70]

1940s

The bodies of the dead lie awaiting burial in a mass grave at the German extermination camp or "killing center" of Bergen-Belsen
Emaciated corpses of Jewish children in the Warsaw Ghetto
Prisoners sort through shoes thought to belong to Hungarian Jews who were murdered in the gas chambers after arrival to the Auschwitz extermination camp.
Post-World War II border changes of Poland. The respective Polish, German, and Ukrainian populations were expelled, or ethnically cleansed by the Soviet Union and Poland.
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia in 1943. Most Poles of Volhynia (now in Ukraine) had either been murdered or had fled the area.

1950s

An old picture from 1950 showing Yemenite Jews in Ma'abarot, a series of refugee camps in Israel.
A colour photograph of two young Yemenite Jews in Ma'abarot refugee camps.

1960s

1970s

  • There was an ethnic cleansing of the Greek population of the areas under Turkish military occupation in Cyprus in 1974–76 during and after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. This has been the subject of litigation in the European Court of Human Rights in cases including Loizidou v. Turkey and the European Court of Justice in cases like Apostolides v Orams.[112][113][114]
  • Following the U.S. withdrawal from South Vietnam in 1973 and the communist victory two years later, the Kingdom of Laos's coalition government was overthrown by the communists. The Hmong people, who had actively supported the anti-communist government, became targets of retaliation and persecution. The government that took over in Laos has been accused of committing Genocide against the Hmong,[115][116] with up to 100,000 killed.[117]
  • The Communist Khmer Rouge government in Cambodia disproportionately targeted ethnic minority groups, including ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese and Thais. In the late 1960s, an estimated 425,000 ethnic Chinese lived in Cambodia; by 1984, as a result of Khmer Rouge genocide and emigration, only about 61,400 Chinese remained in the country. The small Thai minority along the border was almost completely exterminated, with only a few thousand managing to reach safety in Thailand. The Muslim Cham Minority suffered serious purges with as much as 80% of their population exterminated. The Khmer's racial supremacist ideology was responsible for this ethnic purge. A Khmer Rouge order stated that henceforth "The Cham nation no longer exists on Kampuchean soil belonging to the Khmers" (U.N. Doc. A.34/569 at 9).[118][119]
  • Subsequent waves of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya fled Burma and many refugees inundated neighbouring Bangladesh including 250,000 in 1978 as a result of the Operation Dragon King in Arakan.[120][121]

1980s

1990s

The cemetery at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery to Genocide Victims
Bhutanese refugees in Nepal
Ethnic cleansing of a Croatian home
An elderly Serb refugee in a tractor trailer leaving her home during Operation Storm
Kosovo Albanian refugees in 1999

21st century

2000s

  • In 2003, Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti Pygmies, told the UN's Indigenous People's Forum that during the Congo Civil War, his people were hunted down and eaten as though they were game animals. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. Makelo asked the UN Security Council to recognize cannibalism as a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.[184][185]
  • From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, Indonesian paramilitaries organized and armed by Indonesian military and police killed or expelled large numbers of civilians in East Timor.[186] After the East Timorese people voted for independence in a 1999 referendum, Indonesian paramilitaries retaliated, murdering Separatists and levelling most towns. More than 200,000 people either fled or were forcibly taken to Indonesia before East Timor achieved full independence.[187]
  • Since the mid-1990s the central government of Botswana has been trying to move Bushmen, also known as the Saan, out of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. As of October 2005, the government has resumed its policy of forcing all Bushmen off their lands in the Game Reserve, using armed police and threats of violence or death.[188] Many of the involuntarily displaced Bushmen live in squalid resettlement camps and some have resorted to prostitution and alcoholism, while about 250 others remain or have surreptitiously returned to the Kalahari to resume their independent lifestyle.[189] Festus Mogae defended the actions, saying, "How can we continue to have Stone Age creatures in an age of computers?"[190][191]
  • Since 2003, Sudan has been widely accused of carrying out a Genocide Campaign against several black ethnic groups in Darfur, in response to a rebellion by Africans alleging mistreatment. Sudanese irregular militia known as the Janjaweed and Sudanese military and police forces have killed an estimated 450,000, expelled around two million, and burned 800 villages.[192] A 14 July 2007 article noted that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chad and Niger crossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by the Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. Some 450,000 have been killed and 2.5 million have now been forced to flee to refugee camps in Chad after their homes and villages were destroyed.[193]
  • At least one additional thousand Serbs fled their homes during the 2004 unrest in Kosovo and numerous religious and cultural objects were burned down.[194][195]
  • During the Iraq Civil War and consequent Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013), entire neighborhoods in Baghdad were ethnically cleansed by Shia and Sunni militias.[196][197] Some areas were evacuated by every member of a particular group due to lack of security, moving into new areas because of fear of reprisal killings. As of 21 June 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 2 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[198][199][200]
  • The Assyrian exodus from Iraq from 2003 until present is often described as ethnic cleansing. Although Iraqi Christians represent less than 5% of the total Iraqi population, they make up 40% of the refugees now living in nearby countries, according to UNHCR.[201][202] In the 16th century, Christians constituted half of Iraq's population.[203] In 1987, the last Iraqi census counted 1.4 million Christians.[204] Following the 2003 invasion and the resultant growth of militant Islamism, Christians' total numbers slumped to about 500,000, of whom 250,000 live in Baghdad.[205] Furthermore, the Mandaean and Yazidi communities are at the risk of elimination due to the ongoing atrocities by Islamic extremists.[206][207] A 25 May 2007 article noted that in the past 7 months only 69 people from Iraq had been granted refugee status in the United States.[208]
  • In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad.[209] This population numbered about 150,000.[210] Nigerien government forces forcibly rounded up Arabs in preparation for deportation, during which two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government eventually suspended the plan.[211]
  • In 1950, the Karen had become the largest of 20 minority groups participating in an insurgency against the military dictatorship in Burma. The conflict continues as of 2008. In 2004, the BBC, citing aid agencies, estimates that up to 200,000 Karen have been driven from their homes during decades of war, with 120,000 more refugees from Burma, mostly Karen, living in refugee camps on the Thai side of the border. Many accuse the military government of Burma of ethnic cleansing.[212] As a result of the ongoing war in minority group areas more than two million people have fled Burma to Thailand.[213]
  • Civil unrest in Kenya erupted in December 2007.[214] By 28 January 2008, the death toll from the violence was at around 800.[215] The United Nations estimated that as many as 600,000 people have been displaced.[216][217] A government spokesman claimed that Odinga's supporters were "engaging in ethnic cleansing".[218]
  • The 2008 attacks on North Indians in Maharashtra began on 3 February 2008. Incidences of violence against North Indians and their property were reported in Mumbai, Pune, Aurangabad, Beed, Nashik, Amravati, Jalna and Latur. Nearly 25,000 North Indian workers fled Pune,[219][220] and another 15,000 fled Nashik in the wake of the attacks.[221][222]
  • In May 2008, xenophobic riots erupted in South Africa. Within three weeks 80,000 were displaced and 62 killed, with 670 injured in the violence when South Africans ejected non-nationals in a nationwide ethnic cleansing/xenophobic outburst. The most affected foreigners were Somalis, Ethiopians, Indians, Pakistanis, Zimbabweans and Mozambiqueans. Local South Africans were also caught up in the violence. Arvin Gupta, a senior UNHCR protection officer, said the UNHCR did not agree with the City of Cape Town that those displaced by the violence should be held at camps across the city.[223]
  • In August 2008, the 2008 South Ossetia war broke out when Georgia launched a military offensive against South Ossetian separatists, leading to military intervention by Russia, during which Georgian forces were expelled from the separatist territories of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. During the fighting, 15,000[224] ethnic Georgians living in South Ossetia were forced to flee to Georgia proper, and Ossetian militias burned their villages to the Ground to prevent their return.

2010s

Refugees of the fighting in the Central African Republic, 19 January 2014

2020s

Mass grave of civilians in Tigray
1,500 Ukrainian children from Kherson and Zaporizhzhia at Yevpatoria, Russian-occupied Crimea, October 2022
  • The War in Tigray has been described as an ongoing ethnic cleansing perpetrated by Ethiopia against ethnic Tigrayans. New IDs have been prescribed to Tigrayans, and many Tigrayans living in other Ethiopian regions have been subject to "ethnically selective purges".[269] Ethiopia has also weaponized famine as a key war tactic in Tigray, leaving an estimated 90% of the population vulnerable to famine. All electricity has been cut off by Ethiopia, cutting off Tigray's communication with the outside world. One schoolteacher recalled, "Even if someone was dead, they shot them again, dozens of times. I saw this. I saw many bodies, even priests. They killed all Tigrayans."[270][269]
  • During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, reports indicated that between 900,000 and 1.6 million Ukrainians on the Russian-occupied territories were deported to Russia, including 260,000 children. At least 18 filtration camps were established along the Russian border to facilitate this transfer.[271] These crimes were alleged to be a form of depopulation and ethnic cleansing of Ukraine by the Russian military on the order of Russia's leader Vladimir Putin.[272][273] In 2023, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued an arrest warrant for Vladimir Putin and Maria Lvova-Belova for unlawful deportation and forcible transfer of population (children) from occupied areas of Ukraine to Russia.[274]
  • In 2022 Azerbaijan launched a nine-month blockade of Nagorno-Karbakh, destroyed public utilities and abducted several civilians. In September 2023, Azerbaijan then launched a military offensive and de facto annexed Nagorno-Karabakh. Fears of persecution led indigenous Armenian inhabitants of the region to flee to Armenia from 24 September onward. By 3 October, 100,617 refugees, more than 99% of Nagorno-Karabakh's population, had fled to Armenia.[275][276][277] Azerbaijan's blockade and its military offensive have been described as ethnic cleansing and genocide.[278][279][280][281]

See also

References

  1. ^ Garrity, Meghan M (27 September 2023). ""Ethnic Cleansing": An Analysis of Conceptual and Empirical Ambiguity". Political Science Quarterly. 138 (4): 469–489. doi:10.1093/psquar/qqad082.
  2. ^ Melikian, Souren (22 August 2008). "The 'peaceful' Hadrian and his endless wars". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  3. ^ Beard, M. (2008), "A very modern emperor", The Guardian, retrieved 12 September 2023, In the end, Hadrian's forces had to resort to the most ruthless form of ethnic cleansing, constructive starvation and mass slaughter of the enemy that went far beyond the casualties inflicted by the Jews.
  4. ^ Pérez, Joseph (2007). History of a Tragedy: The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Translated by Hochroth, Lysa. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252031410.
  5. ^ Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew (1 June 1993). "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing". Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993): 4. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  6. ^ Saldanha, Arun (2012). Deleuze and Race. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 51, 70. ISBN 978-0-7486-6961-5.
  7. ^ Rogers, Joe (30 April 2018). From an Irish Market Town. Publishamerica Incorporated. ISBN 9781456043087 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Horning, Audrey (2013). Ireland in the Virginian Sea. University of North Carolina Press. doi:10.5149/9781469610733_horning. ISBN 9781469610726. JSTOR 10.5149/9781469610733_horning.
  9. ^ Hallinan, Conn Malachi (1977). "The Subjugation and Division of Ireland: Testing Ground for Colonial Policy". Crime and Social Justice (8): 53–57. JSTOR 29766019.
  10. ^ * Albert Breton (Editor, 1995). Nationalism and Rationality. Cambridge University Press 1995. Page 248. "Oliver Cromwell offered Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer"
    • Ukrainian Quarterly. Ukrainian Society of America 1944. "Therefore, we are entitled to accuse the England of Oliver Cromwell of the genocide of the Irish civilian population.."
    • David Norbrook (2000).Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627–1660. Cambridge University Press. 2000. In interpreting Andrew Marvell's contemporarily expressed views on Cromwell Norbrook says; "He (Cromwell) laid the foundation for a ruthless programme of resettling the Irish Catholics which amounted to large scale ethnic cleansing.."
    • Frances Stewart Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine (2000). War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1 (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. p. 51 "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000."
    • Alan Axelrod (2002). Profiles in Leadership, Prentice-Hall. 2002. Page 122. "As a leader Cromwell was entirely unyielding. He was willing to act on his beliefs, even if this meant killing the king and perpetrating, against the Irish, something very nearly approaching genocide"
    • Tim Pat Coogan (2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. p 6. "The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide."
    • Peter Berresford Ellis (2002). Eyewitness to Irish History, John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-26633-4. p. 108 "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • John Morrill (2003). Rewriting Cromwell – A Case of Deafening Silences, Canadian Journal of History. Dec 2003. "Of course, this has never been the Irish view of Cromwell.
      Most Irish remember him as the man responsible for the mass slaughter of civilians at Drogheda and Wexford and as the agent of the greatest episode of ethnic cleansing ever attempted in Western Europe as, within a decade, the percentage of land possessed by Catholics born in Ireland dropped from sixty to twenty. In a decade, the ownership of two-fifths of the land mass was transferred from several thousand Irish Catholic landowners to British Protestants. The gap between Irish and the English views of the seventeenth-century conquest remains unbridgeable and is governed by G. K. Chesterton's mirthless epigram of 1917, that "it was a tragic necessity that the Irish should remember it; but it was far more tragic that the English forgot it."
    • James M Lutz Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Brenda J Lutz, (2004). Global Terrorism, Routledge: London, p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell in Ireland were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal."
    • Mark Levene Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2. ISBN 978-1-84511-057-4 Page 55, 56 & 57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population".
    • Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I.B. Tauris: London:

      [The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state.

  11. ^ Klimeš, Ondřej (8 January 2015). Struggle by the Pen: The Uyghur Discourse of Nation and National Interest, c.1900–1949. BRILL. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-90-04-28809-6.
  12. ^ MacLeod, Katie (20 September 2016). "The Unsaid of the Grand Dérangement: An Analysis of Outsider and Regional Interpretations of Acadian History". The Graduate History Review. University of Victoria. 5 (1). Archived from the original on 2 September 2018.
  13. ^ Jones, Adam (2016). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Taylor & Francis. pp. 108–110. ISBN 978-1-317-53386-3 – via Google Books.
  14. ^ Richmond, Walter (2013). The Circassian Genocide. New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Rutgers University Press. pp. 97, 132. ISBN 978-0-8135-6068-7.
  15. ^ Michael Mann, The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing, pp. 112–4, Cambridge, 2005 "... figures are derive[d] from McCarthy (1995: I 91, 162–4, 339), who is often viewed as a scholar on the Turkish side of the debate. Yet even if we reduce his figures by 50 percent, they would still horrify. He estimates that between 1812 and 1922 somewhere around 5½ million Muslims were driven out of Europe and 5 million more were killed or died of either disease or starvation while fleeing. ... In the final Balkan Wars of 1912–13 he estimates that 62 percent of all Muslims (27 percent dead, 35 percent refugees) disappeared from the lands conquered by Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria. This was murderous ethnic cleansing on a stupendous scale not previously seen in Europe, ..."
  16. ^ Mihcael, Radu. Dangerous Neighborhood: Contemporary Issues in Turkey's Foreign Relations, p. 78
  17. ^ Robert E. Greenwood (2007). Outsourcing Culture: How American Culture has Changed From "We the People" Into a One World Government. Outskirts Press. p. 97.
  18. ^ Rajiv Molhotra (2009). "American Exceptionalism and the Myth of the American Frontiers". In Rajani Kannepalli Kanth (ed.). The Challenge of Eurocentrism. Palgrave MacMillan. pp. 180, 184, 189, 199.
  19. ^ Paul Finkelman; Donald R. Kennon (2008). Congress and the Emergence of Sectionalism. Ohio University Press. pp. 15, 141, 254.
  20. ^ Ben Kiernan (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. pp. 328, 330.
  21. ^ The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1830–1875. University of Oklahoma Press. 2005. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8061-3698-1. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  22. ^ Anderson, Gary C. Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: The Crime that Should Haunt America. The University of Oklahoma Press. Oklahoma City, 2014.
  23. ^ Lee, Lloyd ed. Navajo Sovereignty. Understandings and visions of the Diné People. University of Arizona Press: Tucson, 2017.
  24. ^ Lohr, Eric (2003). Nationalizing the Russian Empire. Harvard: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674010413.
  25. ^ Jagodić, Miloš (1998). "The Emigration of Muslims from the New Serbian Regions 1877/1878". Balkanologie. 2 (2). para. 15. doi:10.4000/balkanologie.265. S2CID 140637086.
  26. ^ Stojanović, Dubravka (2010). Ulje na vodi: Ogledi iz istorije sadašnjosti Srbije (PDF). Peščanik. p. 264. ISBN 978-86-86391-19-3.
  27. ^ Blumi, Isa (2013). Ottoman refugees, 1878–1939: Migration in a Post-Imperial World. London: A&C Black. p. 50. ISBN 9781472515384. As these Niš refugees waited for acknowledgment from locals, they took measures to ensure that they were properly accommodated by often confiscating food stored in towns. They also simply appropriated lands and began to build shelter on them. A number of cases also point to banditry in the form of livestock raiding and 'illegal' hunting in communal forests, all parts of refugees' repertoire ... At this early stage of the crisis, such actions overwhelmed the Ottoman state, with the institution least capable of addressing these issues being the newly created Muhacirin Müdüriyeti ... Ignored in the scholarship, these acts of survival by desperate refugees constituted a serious threat to the established Kosovar communities. The leaders of these communities thus spent considerable efforts lobbying the Sultan to do something about the refugees. While these Niš muhacirs would in some ways integrate into the larger regional context, as evidenced later, they, and a number of other Albanian-speaking refugees streaming in for the next 20 years from Montenegro and Serbia, constituted a strong opposition block to the Sultan's rule."; p.53. "One can observe that in strategically important areas, the new Serbian state purposefully left the old Ottoman laws intact. More important, when the state wished to enforce its authority, officials felt it necessary to seek the assistance of those with some experience, using the old Ottoman administrative codes to assist judges make rulings. There still remained, however, the problem of the region being largely depopulated as a consequence of the wars... Belgrade needed these people, mostly the landowners of the productive farmlands surrounding these towns, back. In subsequent attempts to lure these economically vital people back, while paying lip-service to the nationalist calls for 'purification', Belgrade officials adopted a compromise position that satisfied both economic rationalists who argued that Serbia needed these people and those who wanted to separate 'Albanians' from 'Serbs'. Instead of returning to their 'mixed' villages and towns of the previous Ottoman era, these 'Albanians', 'Pomaks', and 'Turks' were encouraged to move into concentrated clusters of villages in Masurica, and Gornja Jablanica that the Serbian state set up for them. For this 'repatriation' to work, however, authorities needed the cooperation of local leaders to help persuade members of their community who were refugees in Ottoman territories to 'return'. In this regard, the collaboration between Shahid Pasha and the Serbian regime stands out. An Albanian who commanded the Sofia barracks during the war, Shahid Pasha negotiated directly with the future king of Serbia, Prince Milan Obrenović, to secure the safety of those returnees who would settle in the many villages of Gornja Jablanica. To help facilitate such collaborative ventures, laws were needed that would guarantee the safety of these communities likely to be targeted by the rising nationalist elements infiltrating the Serbian army at the time. Indeed, throughout the 1880s, efforts were made to regulate the interaction between exiled Muslim landowners and those local and newly immigrant farmers working their lands. Furthermore, laws passed in early 1880 began a process of managing the resettlement of the region that accommodated those refugees who came from Austrian-controlled Herzegovina and from Bulgaria. Cooperation, in other words, was the preferred form of exchange within the borderland, not violent confrontation.
  28. ^ Turović, Dobrosav (2002). Gornja Jablanica, Kroz istoriju. Belgrade: Zavičajno udruženje. pp. 87–89. ISBN 9788675270188.
  29. ^ Uka, Sabit (2004). Gjurmë mbi shqiptarët e Sanxhakut të Nishit deri më 1912 [Traces on Albanians of the Sanjak of Nish up to 1912] (in Albanian). Prishtina: Verana. p. 155. ISBN 9789951864527.
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List of ethnic cleansing campaigns
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