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Foreign relations of Spain

The foreign relations of Spain could be constructed upon the foreign relations of the Hispanic Crown. The personal union of Castile and Aragon that ensued with the joint rule of the Catholic Monarchs was followed by the annexation of the Kingdom of Granada and the Kingdom of Navarre. The crown also built a large colonial empire in the Americas after the arrival of Columbus to the New World in 1492.

The Spanish Habsburg monarchs had large holdings across the European continent stemming from the inherited dominions of the Habsburg monarchy and from the Aragonese holdings in the Italian Peninsula. The Habsburg dynasty fought against the Protestant Reformation in the continent and achieved a dynastic unification of the realms of the Iberian Peninsula with their enthronement as Portuguese monarchs after 1580. The American colonies shipped bullion, but resources were spent in wars waged against France in Italy and elsewhere as well as in conflicts against the Ottoman Empire, England or revolts in the Spanish Netherlands, Portugal (lost after 1640) and Catalonia. Mainland Spain was the main theatre of the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), after which the Bourbon dynasty consolidated rule, while handing in holdings in Italy and the Netherlands. The successive Bourbon Family Compacts underpinned a close alignment with the Kingdom of France throughout the 18th century. During the Napoleonic Wars, Mainland Spain was occupied by the French Empire (which installed a puppet ruler), and became after an 1808 uprising the main theatre of the Peninsular War. Nearly all its colonies fought for and won independence in the early 19th century. From then on it kept Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines, otherwise lost in 1898 after the Spanish–American War, and, in line with far-reaching efforts by other European powers, Spain began to sustain a colonial presence in the African continent, most notably in Western Sahara and Equatorial Guinea. It also intervened in Nguyễn Vietnam alongside France and involved in the affairs of former colony Santo Domingo, which briefly returned to Spanish control. In the wake of the creation of a Spanish protectorate in Northern Morocco, the early 20th century saw a draining conflict against Riffian anti-colonial resistance. Spain stuck to a status of neutrality during World War I.

The Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939 became a proxy war between the axis powers Germany and Italy and the Soviet Union (which lost). The war ensued with the installment of a dictatorship under Francisco Franco lasting until 1975. In the aftermath of World War 2, the series of multilateral agreements and institutions configuring what it is known today as Western Europe were made apart from Francoist Spain.[1] The 1953 military agreements with the United States entailed the acceptance of unprecedented conditions vis-à-vis the (peacetime) military installment of a foreign power on Spanish soil.[2] Spain joined the UN in 1955 and the IMF in 1958.[3] In the last rales of the dictator, the mismanaged decolonisation of Spanish Sahara ensued with the Moroccan invasion of the territory in 1975 and the purported partition of it between Morocco and Mauritania, spawning a protracted conflict pitting the Sahrawi national liberation Polisario Front against Morocco and (briefly) Mauritania lasting to this day. Spain joined NATO (1982) and entered the European Communities (1986).

On a wide range of issues, Spain often prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms. In addition to being represented via EU membership, Spain is a permanently invited guest to all G20 summits.[4]

History

In 218 BC the Romans invaded the Iberian peninsula, which later became the Roman province of Hispania. The Romans introduced the Latin language, the ancestor of both modern-day Spanish and Italian. The Iberian peninsula remained under Roman rule for over 600 years, until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

In the Early modern period, until the 18th century, southern and insular Italy came under Spanish control, having been previously a domain of the Crown of Aragon.

Dominions of the Habsburgs in 1556

Charles V

Charles V (1500–1558) inherited vast lands across Western Europe and the Americas, and expanded them by frequent wars.[5] Among other domains he was King of Spain from 1516, and Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519. As head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the Burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. His great enemy on land was France, on the Mediterranean Sea it was the Ottoman Empire, which at times was allied with France. England and the Papacy were sometimes part of the coalition against him. Much of his attention focused on wars in Italy. At the Diet of Augsburg (1547) he secured recognition that the Netherlands belonged to the Hapsburg domain. However Charles was intensely Catholic and the northern Netherlands was Protestant. He and his Spanish heirs fought for a century against Dutch independence; despite the enormous cost they failed.[6]

Philip II, 1556–1598

Philip III, 1598–1621

The Somerset House Conference between English and Spanish diplomats that brought an end to the Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604).

Philip III has a poor reputation in terms of both domestic and foreign policy. He inherited two major conflicts from his father. The first of these, the long-running Dutch revolt, represented a serious challenge to Spanish power from the Protestant United Provinces in a crucial part of the Spanish Empire. The second, the Anglo–Spanish War was a newer, and less critical conflict with Protestant England, marked by a Spanish failure to successfully bring its huge military resources to bear on the smaller English military.[7]

Philip's own foreign policy can be divided into three phases. For the first nine years of his reign, he pursued a highly aggressive set of policies, aiming to deliver a 'great victory'.[8] His instructions to his most important advisor Duke Lerma to wage a war of "blood and iron" on his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands reflects this.[9] After 1609, when it became evident that Spain was financially exhausted and Philip sought a truce with the Dutch, there followed a period of retrenchment; in the background, tensions continued to grow, however, and by 1618 the policies of Philip's 'proconsols' were increasingly at odds with de Lerma's policy from Madrid.[10]

Europe in 1701 at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession

War of the Spanish Succession and after 1701–1759

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) saw Spain in a nearly helpless position as multiple European powers battled for control over which of three rivals would be king. At first most of the warfare took place outside of Spain. However, in 1704 Spain was invaded by the Germans (officially by the Holy Roman Empire including Habsburg Austria and Prussia, as well as other minor German states), Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, the Duchy of Savoy and Portugal. The invaders wanted to make the Habsburg candidate king instead of the incumbent Philip V who the grandson of France's powerful king Louis XIV and candidate of the House of Bourbon. Spain had no real army, but it defense was a high priority for Louis XIV who sent in his French armies and after a devastating civil war eventually drove out the invaders from Spain.[11][12]

After years of warfare and changing coalitions, the final result was that Philip V remained king. In practice his wife Elisabeth Farnese ruled Spain from 1714 until 1746, and was more interested in Italy than Spain. Spain was not even invited to the peace treaties (Peace of Utrecht); they forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish crowns. Britain was the main winner; it blocked France from becoming too powerful. Britain acquired Minorca and Gibraltar from Spain, as well as the right to sell slaves to Spanish colonies. Britain also gained Newfoundland and Nova Scotia from France. Spain kept its American colonies but lost its European holdings in Italy and the Spanish Netherlands (modern Belgium), mostly to Austria. Spain briefly regained some Italian holdings until the British sank its fleet in 1718. Elisabeth Farnese succeeded in recapturing Naples and Sicily. She put her son on the throne there. He abdicated in 1759 to return to Madrid as King Charles III of Spain.[13][14]

American Revolutionary War: 1775–1783

Eager to gain revenge on the British for its defeat during the Seven Years' War, France offered support to rebel American colonists seeking independence from Britain during the American War of Independence and in 1778 entered the war on their side. They then urged Spain to do the same, hoping the combined force would be strong enough to overcome the British Royal Navy and be able to invade England. In 1779 Spain joined the war, hoping to take advantage of a substantially weakened Britain. Distrustful of republics, Spain did not officially recognize the new United States of America.[15]

A well-organised force under Bernardo de Galvez operating out of Spanish Louisiana launched repeated attacks on British colonies in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. They were easy winners against weak British garrisons, and were planning an expedition against Jamaica when peace was declared in 1783.

Spain's highest priority was to recapture Gibraltar from Britain using the Great Siege of Gibraltar.[16] Despite a prolonged besiegement, the British garrison there was able to hold out until relieved and it remained in British hands following the Treaty of Paris. Unlike their French allies (for whom the war proved largely to be a disaster, financially and militarily) the Spanish made a number of territorial gains, recovering Florida and Menorca.[17][18]

20th century

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A neutral country during World War I, Spain was not invited to take part in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, owing to the country's relative low profile in international affairs.[19] It was however invited to join the League of Nations as a non-permanent member and it formally did so on 14 August 1919.[19] During the so-called Wilsonian moment in international relations, forces adversarial to the Spanish State such as the Rifis vying for international recognition of their proto-republic and the Catalan separatist movement emboldened.[19]

Regional relations

Latin America

The Ibero-American vision

Spain has maintained its special identification with its fellow Spanish-speaking countries. Its policy emphasizes the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of "Hispano-Americanismo" (or Hispanic as it is often referred to in English), which has sought to link the Iberian peninsula to the Spanish-speaking countries in Central and South America through language, commerce, history and culture. Spain has been an effective example of transition from dictatorship to democracy, as shown in the many trips that Spain's King and prime ministers have made to the region.[20]

Trends in diplomatic relations

Spain maintains economic and technical cooperation programs and cultural exchanges with Latin American countries, both bilaterally and within the EU. During José María Aznar's government, Spanish relations worsened with countries like Mexico, Venezuela and Cuba, but were exceptionally good with others, like Colombia, the Dominican Republic and several Central American republics. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's victory in the 2004 general elections changed this setting. Despite long-standing close linguistic, economic and cultural relations with most of Latin America, some aspects of Spanish foreign policy during this time, such as its support for the Iraq War, were not supported or widely favored.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Spain has gradually begun to broaden its contacts with Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a particular interest in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea, where it maintains a large aid program. More recently, it has sought closer relation with Senegal, Mauritania, Mali and others to find solutions for the issue of illegal immigration to the Canary Islands.[21]

Middle East

In the Middle East, Spain is known as a broker between powers. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues. The Arab countries are a priority interest for Spain because of oil and gas imports and because several Arab nations have substantial investments in Spain.[22]

Europe

Spain has been successful in managing its relations with its three immediate European neighbours, France, Andorra, and Portugal. The accession of Spain and Portugal to the EU in 1986[23] has helped ease some of their periodic trade frictions by putting these into an EU context. Franco-Spanish bilateral cooperation has been enhanced by joint action against recurring violence by separatist Basque group ETA since the 1960s.[citation needed] Ties with the United Kingdom are generally good, although the question of Gibraltar remains a sensitive issue, especially since the UK vote on Brexit.[citation needed]

Asia

Today, Spain is trying to expand its still narrow relations with East Asian nations,[24] with China, Japan and South Korea as its main points of interest in the region. Thailand and Indonesia are Spain's main allies in the ASEAN region, having a considerable number of agreements and a very good relationship. In the recent years Spain has also been boosting its contacts, relations and investment in other Asian countries, most notably Vietnam and Malaysia. Relations with the Philippines are, despite a very long colonial past, considerably weaker than the ones Spain has with other countries in the area, dealing mostly with cultural aspects and humanitarian assistance programs.[25]

Disputes

Territorial disputes

Whilst the disputed on Gibraltar with Great Britain is the best known territorial dispute of Spain, the country also has disputes with Portugal and Morocco.

With Great Britain

Ever since it was captured in 1704 by Anglo-Dutch forces during the War of the Spanish Succession, Gibraltar has been the subject of a dispute between Britain and Spain. Situated at the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula, overseeing the Strait of Gibraltar which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediterranean Sea, the territory has great strategic importance. Today, Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory and houses an important base for the British Armed Forces.[26]

Then a Spanish town, it was conquered during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne. The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown[27] stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty.[28] UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar.[29][30]

Aerial view showing the Rock of Gibraltar, the isthmus of Gibraltar and the Bay of Gibraltar

The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other. While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law".[31] The United Kingdom relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus,[32] as there has been "continuous possession [of the isthmus] over a long period".[33]

With Morocco

The strategic position of the Strait of Gibraltar has left a legacy of a number of sovereignty disputes.[34] These include the "five places of sovereignty" (plazas de soberanía) on and off the coast of Morocco: the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Peñon de Alhucemas, Peñon de Vélez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas. Spain maintains sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla, Peñon de Velez de la Gomera, Alhucemas and the Chafarinas Islands (captured following the Christian reconquest of Spain) based upon historical grounds, security reasons and on the basis of the UN principle of territorial integrity. Spain also maintains that the majority of residents are Spanish. Morocco claims these territories on the basis of the UN principles of decolonisation, territorial integrity and that Spanish arguments for the recovery of Gibraltar substantiate Morocco's claim.[35] Spain claims sovereignty over the Perejil Island, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. The island lies 250 metres (820 ft) just off the coast of Morocco, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Ceuta and 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) from mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty.

With Portugal

Olivenza (Spanish) or Olivença (Portuguese) is a town and seat of a municipality, on a disputed section of the border between Portugal and Spain, which is claimed de jure by both countries and administered de facto as part of the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura. The population is 80% ethnic Portuguese and 30% of Portuguese language. Olivenza/Olivença was under continuous Portuguese sovereignty since 1297 until it was occupied by the Spanish in 1801 and formally ceded by Portugal later that year by the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain claims the de jure (legal) sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz still stands and has never been revoked. Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by that treaty. Portugal claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz was revoked by its own terms (the breach of any of its articles would lead to its cancellation) when Spain invaded Portugal in the Peninsular War of 1807.[36]

Portugal further bases its case on Article 105 of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815, which Spain signed in 1817, that states that the winning countries are to "endeavour with the mightiest conciliatory effort to return Olivenza/Olivença to Portuguese authority". Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by the Treaty of Alcanizes of 1297. Spain interprets Article 105 as not being mandatory on demanding Spain to return Olivenza/Olivença to Portugal, thus not revoking the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal has never made a formal claim to the territory after the Treaty of Vienna, but has equally never directly acknowledged the Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença. Portugal continues to claim Olivenza/Olivença, asserting that under the Vienna Treaty of 1815, Spain recognized the Portuguese claims as "legitimate".

Another dispute surrounds the Savage Islands, which Spain acknowledges to be part of Portugal. However, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles) generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens as possessing territorial waters (12 nautical miles). On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.[37][38]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Spain maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country[39] Date
1  Portugal 5 October 1143[40]
2  France 1486[41]
 Holy See 1400s[42]
3  United Kingdom 1505[43]
4  Denmark 3 February 1645[44][45]
5  Netherlands 29 June 1649[46]
6  Sweden 1651[47]
7  United States 20 February 1783[48]
8  Russia 20 July 1812[49]
9  Brazil 1834[50]
10  Greece 6 December 1835[51]
11  Mexico 28 December 1836[52]
12  Ecuador 16 February 1840[53]
13  Uruguay 9 October 1841[54]
14  Iran 4 March 1842[55]
15  Venezuela 30 March 1845[56]
16  Bolivia 21 July 1847
17  Costa Rica 10 May 1850[57]
18  Nicaragua 21 March 1851[58]
19  Dominican Republic 18 February 1855[59]
20  Italy 5 May 1856[60]
21  Argentina 21 September 1863
22  Guatemala 18 June 1864[61]
23  El Salvador 24 June 1865[62]
24  Japan 12 November 1868[63]
25  Thailand 23 February 1870[64]
26  Monaco 2 June 1876[65]
27  Peru 15 November 1879[66]
28  Paraguay 10 September 1880
29  Colombia 30 January 1881[67]
30  Romania 5 July 1881[68]
31  Chile 12 June 1883[69]
32  Luxembourg 9 February 1891[70]
33  Honduras 11 June 1896
34  Cuba 21 June 1902[71]
35  Panama 10 May 1904[72]
36  Norway 26 November 1905[73]
37  Bulgaria 5 August 1910[74]
38  Serbia 14 October 1916[75][76]
39  Finland 16 August 1918[77]
40  Czech Republic 19 June 1919[78]
41  Poland 17 September 1919[79]
42  Belgium 21 January 1921[80]
43  Egypt 9 May 1922[81]
44  Turkey 27 September 1924
45  Ireland September 1935[82]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 19 November 1938[83]
46   Switzerland 14 February 1939[84]
47  Hungary December 1944[85]
48  Philippines 27 September 1947[86]
49  Lebanon 15 April 1949[84]
50  Iceland 20 September 1949[87]
51  Haiti 6 November 1949[84]
52  Syria 4 March 1950[84]
53  South Korea 24 March 1950[84]
54  Liberia 5 May 1950[84]
55  Jordan 6 July 1950[84]
56  Iraq 5 August 1950[84]
57  Ethiopia April 1951
58  South Africa 18 May 1951[84]
59  Pakistan 17 September 1951[84]
60  Saudi Arabia 17 July 1952[84]
61  Germany 6 November 1952[84]
62  Canada 21 February 1953[88]
63  Sri Lanka 10 July 1955
64  Austria 28 March 1956[84]
65  Morocco 26 June 1956[84]
66  India 7 November 1956[84]
67  Tunisia 8 July 1957[84]
68  Indonesia 28 February 1958[89]
69  Afghanistan 28 October 1958[90]
70  Libya 14 January 1961
71  Nigeria 10 February 1961[84]
72  Mauritania 15 April 1961[84]
73  Cameroon 10 November 1961[84]
74  Algeria 18 December 1962[84]
75  Sudan 20 February 1964
76  Gabon 25 February 1964[84]
77  Sierra Leone 6 March 1964[84]
78  Laos 20 March 1964[91]
79  Kuwait 17 April 1964[84]
80  Ivory Coast 12 June 1964[84]
81  Mali 20 August 1964[84]
82  Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 November 1964[84]
83  Burkina Faso 27 November 1964
84  Central African Republic 27 November 1964[84]
85  Guinea 10 February 1965
86  Senegal 3 March 1965[84]
87  Niger May 1965
88  Gambia 14 August 1965[84]
89  Togo 22 October 1965
90  Benin 25 March 1966
91  Madagascar 25 March 1966
92  Burundi 27 September 1966[84]
93  Jamaica 21 December 1966[84]
94  Tanzania 23 February 1967[84]
95  Myanmar 11 March 1967[92]
96  Kenya 27 April 1967
97  Malaysia 12 May 1967
98  Trinidad and Tobago 15 June 1967[84]
99  Rwanda 16 June 1967[84]
100  Australia 26 October 1967
101  Ghana 10 November 1967
102  Cyprus 22 December 1967[84]
103  Singapore 26 April 1968
104    Nepal 14 May 1968
105  Somalia 31 May 1968[84]
106  Malta 7 June 1968[93]
107  Yemen 24 September 1968[84]
108  Equatorial Guinea 27 September 1968[84]
109  New Zealand 28 March 1969
110  Uganda 13 September 1969
111  Zambia 26 September 1969[84]
112  Bahrain 15 November 1971[94]
113  Bangladesh 12 May 1972[84]
114  Malawi 27 October 1972[84]
115  Oman 10 November 1972
116  United Arab Emirates 10 November 1972[95]
117  Republic of the Congo 7 December 1972
118  Qatar 22 December 1972
119  China 9 March 1973[96]
120  Chad 7 February 1975[84]
121  Guinea Bissau 3 March 1975[97]
122  Suriname 9 July 1976[84]
123  Grenada 2 September 1976[84]
124  Bahamas 1 December 1976
125  Fiji 10 December 1976[98]
126  Cambodia 3 May 1977
127  Lesotho 3 May 1977[84]
128  Vietnam 23 May 1977
129  Mozambique 27 May 1977[84]
130  Mongolia 4 July 1977
131  Angola 19 October 1977
132  Cape Verde 21 December 1977
133  Papua New Guinea 28 August 1978
134  Seychelles 3 November 1978
135  Eswatini 6 April 1979[84]
136  Mauritius 30 May 1979
137  Djibouti 25 June 1979[99]
138  Maldives 24 August 1979
139  Tonga 16 November 1979
140  Zimbabwe 21 April 1980[100]
141  Solomon Islands 8 August 1980
142  Barbados 29 September 1980[84]
143  Dominica 29 September 1980[84]
144  Samoa 5 November 1980[101]
145  Botswana 29 April 1981
146  Vanuatu 30 April 1981
147  São Tomé and Príncipe 26 February 1982[102]
148  Comoros 1 March 1983
149  Brunei June 1984
150  Israel 17 January 1986
151  Saint Lucia 2 May 1986
152  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 21 July 1986[84]
153  Guyana 1 August 1986[84]
154  Albania 12 September 1986
155  Saint Kitts and Nevis 19 March 1987
156  Antigua and Barbuda 27 June 1988[84]
157  Belize 13 January 1989[84]
158  Namibia 2 March 1990[84]
159  Estonia 10 September 1991
160  Lithuania 7 October 1991
161  Latvia 9 October 1991[103]
162  Marshall Islands 17 December 1991[104]
163  Armenia 27 January 1992
164  Ukraine 30 January 1992[105]
165  Moldova 31 January 1992
166  Azerbaijan 11 February 1992
167  Kazakhstan 11 February 1992
168  Belarus 13 February 1992
169  Croatia 9 March 1992
170  Uzbekistan 18 March 1992
171  Turkmenistan 19 March 1992
172  Slovenia 25 March 1992[106]
173  Kyrgyzstan 3 April 1992[107]
174  San Marino 29 April 1992[108]
175  Federated States of Micronesia 11 May 1992
176  Georgia 9 July 1992
177  Liechtenstein 17 July 1992[109]
178  Tajikistan 4 August 1992[110]
179  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14 December 1992[111]
180  Slovakia 1 January 1993
181  Andorra 3 June 1993[112]
182  Eritrea 5 October 1993
183  North Macedonia 28 July 1994
184  Tuvalu 4 May 1995
185  Palau 3 August 1995
186  Nauru 27 September 1995
 Cook Islands 29 January 1998
187  North Korea 7 February 2001
188  East Timor 20 May 2002
189  Montenegro 11 December 2006
190  Bhutan 11 February 2011[113]
191  Kiribati 24 September 2011[104]
192  South Sudan 7 October 2011[114]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Date formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 18 December 1962[84] See Algeria–Spain relations
 Angola 19 October 1977[39] See Angola–Spain relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Luanda.
 Burkina Faso 27 November 1964[39] See Burkina Faso–Spain relations
 Cameroon 10 November 1961[84] See Cameroon–Spain relations
  • Cameroon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Yaoundé.
 Chad 7 February 1975[84]
  • Chad is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
 Ivory Coast 12 June 1964[84] See Ivory Coast–Spain relations
  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Abidjan.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 November 1964[84] See Democratic Republic of the Congo–Spain relations
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kinshasa.
 Egypt 15 July 1950[84] See Egypt–Spain relations
  • Egypt has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Cairo.
 Equatorial Guinea 27 September 1968[84] See Equatorial Guinea–Spain relations
 Ethiopia April 1951[39] See Ethiopia–Spain relations
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Gambia 14 August 1965[84]
  • Gambia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Banjul.
 Gabon 25 February 1964[84] See Gabon–Spain relations
  • Gabon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Libreville.
 Ghana 10 November 1967[39] See Ghana–Spain relations
  • Ghana has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Accra.
 Guinea 10 February 1965[39] See Guinea–Spain relations
  • Guinea has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Conakry.
 Guinea-Bissau 1974[39] See Guinea-Bissau–Spain relations
  • Guinea-Bissau has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Bissau.
 Kenya 27 April 1967[39] See Kenya–Spain relations
  • Kenya has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Liberia 5 May 1950[84] See Liberia–Spain relations
 Libya 14 January 1961[39] See Libya–Spain relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tripoli.
 Madagascar 25 March 1966[39]
  • Madagascar is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Mali 20 August 1964[84] See Mali–Spain relations
  • Mali has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Bamako.
 Mauritania 15 April 1961[84] See Mauritania–Spain relations
 Morocco 26 June 1956[84] See Morocco–Spain relations

Spain has several interests in Morocco. This is dictated by geographic proximity and long historical contacts, as well as by the two Spanish enclave cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the northern coast of Africa. While Spain's departure from its former colony of Western Sahara ended direct Spanish participation in Morocco, it maintains an interest in the peaceful resolution of the conflict brought about there by decolonization. These issues were highlighted by a crisis in 2002, when Spanish forces evicted a small contingent of Moroccans from a tiny islet off Morocco's coast following that nation's attempt to assert sovereignty over the Spanish island.

 Mozambique 27 May 1977[84] See Mozambique–Spain relations
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Maputo.
 Namibia 2 March 1990[84] See Namibia–Spain relations
  • Namibia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain has an embassy in Windhoek.
 Niger May 1965[39] See Niger–Spain relations
  • Niger is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain has an embassy in Niamey.
 Nigeria 10 February 1961[84] See Nigeria–Spain relations
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic No diplomatic relations See Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic–Spain relations
  • Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has a delegation office in Madrid[118] and a delegation office in Barcelona.[119]
 Senegal 3 March 1965[84] See Senegal–Spain relations
  • Senegal has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Dakar.
 South Africa 18 May 1951[84] See South Africa–Spain relations
  • South Africa has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.
 Sudan 20 February 1964[39] See Spain–Sudan relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Madrid.
 Tanzania 23 February 1967[84]
  • Spain has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Tunisia 8 July 1957[84] See Spain–Tunisia relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Madrid.
 Zambia 26 September 1969[84]
  • Spain has no embassy in Zambia, but has an honorary consulate in Lusaka, and is accredited to the country from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Zambia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Harare, Zimbabwe.
 Zimbabwe 21 April 1981[84]
  • Spain has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.

Americas

Country Date formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 27 June 1988[84]
  • Antigua and Barbuda has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda from its embassy in Kingston, Jamaica.
 Argentina 21 September 1863[39] See Argentina–Spain relations
 Bahamas 1 December 1976[39] See Bahamas–Spain relations
 Barbados 29 September 1980[84]
  • Barbados is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
 Belize 13 January 1989[84] See Belize–Spain relations
  • Belize is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Belize from its embassy in Guatemala City, Guatemala.
 Bolivia 21 July 1847[39] See Bolivia–Spain relations

A diplomatic crisis with Bolivia in 2005 due to a misunderstanding was quickly resolved by Zapatero and Spain became the first European country visited by Evo Morales on January 4, 2006. However, there remain problems surrounding the exploitation of oil and gas fields in the country by Spanish corporations like Repsol.

Bolivian President Evo Morales met King Juan Carlos and held talks with Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero during a visit to Spain in September 2009 with the intention of resolving issues concerning the nationalisation of the Bolivian energy sector. The move has the potential to hurt some Spanish companies however relations were said to be "positive" between the Bolivian state and Spanish private sector energy companies. Evo Morales said that Bolivia is ready to accept outside investment in its energy and natural resource industries as long as foreign firms do not act as owners and that Bolivia is "looking for investment, be it from private or state sector. We want partners, not owners of our natural resources."

It was suggested that Bolivia would also negotiate with Spanish companies to produce car parts and lithium batteries in the future.[122]

 Brazil See Brazil–Spain relations
 Canada 21 February 1953[127] See Canada–Spain relations
 Chile 12 June 1883[69] See Chile–Spain relations

Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

 Colombia 30 January 1881[67] See Colombia–Spain relations
 Costa Rica 10 May 1850[57] See Costa Rica–Spain relations
 Cuba 1902[39] See Cuba–Spain relations
 Dominican Republic 18 February 1855[59] See Dominican Republic–Spain relations
 Ecuador 16 February 1840[53] See Ecuador–Spain relations
 El Salvador 24 June 1865[62] See El Salvador–Spain relations
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Madrid and consulates-general in Barcelona and Seville.[145]
  • Spain has an embassy in San Salvador.[146]
 Guatemala 18 June 1864[61] See Guatemala–Spain relations
 Haiti 6 November 1949[84] See Haiti–Spain relations
 Honduras 11 June 1896[39] See Honduras–Spain relations
  • Honduras has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.[150]
  • Spain has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.[151]
 Jamaica 21 December 1966[84] See Jamaica–Spain relations
  • Jamaica is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kingston.
 Mexico 28 December 1836[52] See Mexico–Spain relations
 Nicaragua 21 March 1851[58] See Nicaragua–Spain relations
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Managua.[157]
 Panama 10 May 1904[72] See Panama–Spain relations
 Paraguay 10 September 1880[39] See Paraguay–Spain relations
 Peru 15 November 1879[66] See Peru–Spain relations
 Trinidad and Tobago 15 June 1967[84] See Spain–Trinidad and Tobago relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 United States 20 February 1783[48] See Spain–United States relations

Under the government of José María Aznar, Spain developed exceptionally good relations with the US, in great part due to the personal empathy between Aznar and George W. Bush. Following Zapatero's decision to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq immediately after the 2004 general elections, relations predictably soured, although important commercial links remained intact. When elected, President Barack Obama expressed his wish to enhance cooperation between both countries, especially in policies like the Green Energy plan from Zapatero,[166] introducing the AVE (the Spanish High Speed Train) in United States [167] and aiding US by receiving in Spanish prisons Guantanamo Prison detainees [168]

 Uruguay 9 October 1841[54] See Spain–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 30 March 1845[56] See Spain–Venezuela relations

Asia

Country Date formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 28 October 1958[90] See Afghanistan–Spain relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain closed its embassy in Kabul in August 2021.
 Armenia 27 January 1992[39] See Armenia–Spain relations
 Azerbaijan 11 February 1992[39] See Azerbaijan–Spain relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Baku.
 Bahrain 15 November 1971[94]
 Bangladesh 12 May 1972[84] See Bangladesh–Spain relations
 Bhutan 11 February 2011[113] See Bhutan–Spain relations
 China 9 March 1973[96] See China–Spain relations
 East Timor 20 May 2002[39]
  • East Timor is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Spain is accredited to East Timor from its embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia.
 Georgia 9 July 1992[39] See Georgia–Spain relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 India 7 November 1956[84] See India–Spain relations
 Indonesia February 1958[186] See Indonesia–Spain relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran 4 March 1842[55] See Iran–Spain relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tehran.
 Iraq 5 August 1950[84] See Iraq–Spain relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Israel 17 January 1986[39] See Israel–Spain relations
 Japan 12 November 1868[63] See Japan–Spain relations
 Jordan 6 July 1950[84] See Jordan–Spain relations
  • Jordan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Amman.
 Kazakhstan 11 February 1992[39] See Kazakhstan–Spain relations
 Kuwait 17 April 1964[84] See Kuwait–Spain relations
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kuwait City.
 Kyrgyzstan 3 April 1992[107]
  • Spain is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Kyrgyzstan does not have an accreditation to Spain.
 Lebanon 15 April 1949[84] See Lebanon–Spain relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Beirut.
 Malaysia 12 May 1967[39] See Malaysia–Spain relations
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
 Mongolia 4 July 1977[39]
  • Mongolia is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 North Korea 7 February 2001[39] See North Korea–Spain relations
  • North Korea closed its embassy in Madrid in November 2023.[193]
  • Spain is accredited to North Korea from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Pakistan 17 September 1951[84] See Pakistan–Spain relations

Pakistan and Spain enjoy extremely cordial and friendly ties.[194] Relations were established in the late 1950s. Pakistanis form the largest Asian immigrant community in Spain.

  • Pakistan has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Islamabad and honorary consulates in Karachi and Lahore.
 Philippines 27 September 1947[86] See Philippines–Spain relations

Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo concluded her second state visit in Spain in July 2006, bringing back millions of dollars of Spanish investments, particularly in Tourism and Information Technology. The Spanish king, Juan Carlos I, also reiterated in Mrs. Arroyo's visit, his support for her project in the Philippines to re-establish Spanish as an official language in the country. He and his wife, Queen Sofia attended the 1998 centennial celebrations in Manila, commemorating 100 years of independence from Spain. The mediation of King Juan Carlos I is said to have produced the pardon and liberation of two Filipina domestic workers sentenced to death in Kuwait and the UAE.

 Qatar 22 December 1972[39] See Qatar–Spain relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Doha.
 Saudi Arabia 17 July 1952[84] See Saudi Arabia–Spain relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Málaga.
  • Spain has an embassy in Riyadh.
 South Korea 24 March 1950[84] See South Korea–Spain relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Kingdom of Spain began on 7 March 1950.[197]

 Taiwan No diplomatic relations See Spain–Taiwan relations
 Tajikistan 4 August 1992[110]
  • Spain is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Geneva, Switzerland.
 Thailand 23 February 1870[64] See Spain–Thailand relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Madrid.
 Turkey 27 September 1924[39] See Spain–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates 10 November 1972[95] See Spain–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Madrid.
 Uzbekistan 18 March 1992[39] See Spain–Uzbekistan relations
  • Spain is accredited to Uzbekistan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Madrid.
 Vietnam 23 May 1977[39] See Spain–Vietnam relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Madrid.
 Yemen 24 September 1968[84] See Spain–Yemen relations

Europe

Country Date formal relations began Notes
 Albania 12 September 1986[39] See Albania–Spain relations
 Andorra 3 June 1993[112] See Andorra–Spain relations
 Austria 28 March 1956[84] See Austria–Spain relations
 Belarus 13 February 1992[39] See Belarus–Spain relations
 Belgium 21 January 1921[80] See Belgium–Spain relations
  • Belgium has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 14 December 1992[111] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Spain relations
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Bulgaria 5 August 1910[74] See also Bulgaria–Spain relations
 Croatia 9 March 1992[39] See Croatia–Spain relations
 Cyprus 22 December 1967[84] See Cyprus–Spain relations
 Czech Republic 19 June 1919[78] See Czech Republic–Spain relations
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Denmark 3 February 1645[44][45] See Denmark–Spain relations
 Estonia 10 September 1991[39] See Estonia–Spain relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Finland 16 August 1918[77] See Finland–Spain relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 France 1486[41] See France–Spain relations
 Germany 6 November 1952[84] See Germany–Spain relations
 Greece 6 December 1835[51] See Greece–Spain relations

Both countries maintain enhanced cooperation on the serious problem of illegal migration, which they have in common. The need for effective confrontation of the illegal migration pressures on both states in the Mediterranean basin have led to close cooperation both bilaterally and within the framework of the European Union.

 Holy See 1400s[42] See Holy See–Spain relations
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.[220]
 Hungary December 1944[85] See Hungary–Spain relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.[221]
  • Spain has an embassy in Budapest.[222]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Iceland 20 September 1949[87] See Iceland–Spain relations
  • Iceland is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway and maintains an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
 Ireland September 1935[82] See Ireland–Spain relations
 Italy See Italy–Spain relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations after the unification of Italy. Relations between Italy and Spain have remained strong and affable for centuries owing to various political, cultural, and historical connections between the two nations. In the Early modern period, southern and insular Italy came under Spanish control, having been previously a domain of the Crown of Aragon. This extended period of foreign domination left marked influences in the modern southern Italian dialects. During the Spanish Civil War, the Corps of Volunteer Troops, a fascist expeditionary force from Italy, supported the Nationalist forces led by Francisco Franco. It's estimated that around 75,000 Italians fought in the war.

 Latvia 9 October 1991[103] See Latvia–Spain relations
  • Latvia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Riga.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Lithuania 7 October 1991[39] See Lithuania–Spain relations
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Luxembourg 9 February 1891[70] See Luxembourg–Spain relations
 Malta 7 June 1968[93] See Malta–Spain relations
 Moldova 31 January 1992[39] See Moldova–Spain relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Madrid.[229]
  • Spain is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • In 2008, the Spanish government indicated that 12,582 Moldovan citizens were legally working there.[230] Spain is a significant investor in Moldova through Unión Fenosa which owns three of Moldova's five energy distribution companies.[231]
 Monaco 2 June 1876[65] See Monaco–Spain relations
  • Monaco has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Montenegro 11 December 2006[39] See Montenegro–Spain relations
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Montenegro from its embassy in Belgrade, Serbia.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
  • Spain supports Montenegro's EU membership.
 Netherlands See Netherlands–Spain relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 North Macedonia 28 July 1994[39] See North Macedonia–Spain relations
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Skopje.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
  • North Macedonia is an EU candidate and Spain is an EU member.
 Norway 26 November 1905[73] See Norway–Spain relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
 Poland 17 September 1919[79] See Poland–Spain relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Portugal 5 October 1143[40] See Portugal–Spain relations

Portugal's copy of the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided the New World between Portugal and Castile. During the 15th century, Portugal built increasingly large fleets of ships and began to explore the world beyond Europe, sending explorers to Africa and Asia. Castile followed suit decades later. Following the first Spanish voyage of Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean in 1492, both states began acquiring territory in the New World. As a result of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal acquired its most potentially important colony, Brazil (much of the South American continent), as well as a number of possessions in Africa and Asia, while Castile took the rest of South America and much of the North American continent as well as a number of possessions in Africa, Oceanía and Asia as the important colony of the Philippines. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands claimed for Castile by Columbus on his first voyage. Although the Treaty of Tordesillas attempted to clarify their empires, many subsequent treaties were needed to establish the modern boundaries of Brazil and the 1529 Treaty of Zaragoza was needed to demarcate their Asian possessions.

Henry of Portugal, reigned until his death (31 January 1580). He lacked heirs and his death triggered a succession crisis, where the main claimants to the throne were Philip II of Spain and Anthony, Prior of Crato. After the Spanish victory in the War of Portuguese Succession Philip of Spain was crowned king of Portugal in 1581, beginning a personal union between the two nations known as the Iberian Union generating a decline of the Portuguese Empire during the period of Union. The Iberian Union lasted for almost sixty years until 1640, when the Portuguese Restoration War was initiated against Spain and Portugal reestablished the Portuguese dynasty under the Bragança.

Relations between Portugal and Spain are also good. They cooperate in the fight against drug trafficking and tackling forest fires (common in the Iberian Peninsula in summers), for example. These close relations are facilitated by similar governments: the government of conservative Spanish PM José María Aznar coincided with the government of also conservative José Manuel Durão Barroso in Portugal; today, both José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero of Spain and José Sócrates of Portugal are socialists.

Portugal also holds claim to the disputed territory of Olivença in the Portuguese-Spanish border.

 Romania 5 July 1881[68] See Romania–Spain relations
 Russia 20 July 1812[49] See Russia–Spain relations

Spain and the Grand Duchy of Moscow first exchanged envoys in the 1520s; regular embassies were established in 1722. Soviet-Spanish relations, once terminated after the Spanish Civil War, were gradually reestablished since 1963 and fully established in 1977. Trade between two countries amounts to two billion Euros (2008); in March 2009 two countries signed an energy agreement providing national energy companies access to other party's domestic markets.

 Serbia 14 October 1916[75][76] See Serbia–Spain relations
 Slovakia 1 January 1993[39] See Slovakia–Spain relations
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Bratislava.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Slovenia 25 March 1992[106] See Slovenia–Spain relations
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the NATO.
 Sweden 1651[47] See Spain–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 14 February 1939[84] See Spain–Switzerland relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
 Ukraine 30 January 1992[105] See Spain–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom See Spain–United Kingdom relations

During the 16th century (1500–1599), there were complex political, commercial, and cultural connections that linked the large powerful Spanish Empire under the Habsburgs with a small but ambitious England.[242] The Habsburgs sought allies against France. Both countries were constantly in turmoil and it was a love-hate relationship. The marriage of sovereigns –Philip II and Mary Tudor– in 1554 was the high point in a century of negotiations, wars and treaties. Philip and Mary got along personally, but there were no children and their retainers displayed mistrust and the marriage lacked in ceremonies and entertainments. The death of Queen Mary brought Queen Elizabeth to the throne, and the two friendly nations became hostile enemies.[243]

The 2001 UK Census recorded 54,482 Spanish-born people living in the UK.[244] In comparison, it is estimated that 100,000 British-born people live in Spain.[citation needed]

Oceania

Country Date formal relations began Notes
 Australia 26 October 1967[39] See Australia–Spain relations
 Federated States of Micronesia 11 May 1992[39]

The FS of Micronesia were once part of the Spanish East Indies.

  • The FS of Micronesia do not have an accreditation to Spain.
  • Spain is accredited to the FS of Micronesia from its embassy in Manila, Philippines.
 Fiji 10 December 1976[98]
  • Fiji is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Fiji from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
 Kiribati 24 September 2011[104]
 Marshall Islands 17 December 1991[104] See Marshall Islands–Spain relations

The Marshall Islands were once part of the Spanish East Indies.

  • Marshall Islands do not have an accreditation to Spain.
  • Spain is accredited to the Marshall Islands from its embassy in Manila, Philippines.
 New Zealand 28 March 1969[39] See New Zealand–Spain relations
 Palau 3 August 1995[39] See Palau–Spain relations

Palau was once part of the Spanish East Indies.

  • Palau does not have an accreditation to Spain.
  • Spain is accredited to Palau from its embassy in Manila, Philippines.
 Papua New Guinea 28 August 1978[39]
  • Papua New Guinea is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Papua New Guinea from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
 Samoa 5 November 1980[101]
  • Samoa is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Spain is accredited to Samoa from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
 Solomon Islands 8 August 1980[39] See Solomon Islands–Spain relations
 Tonga 16 November 1979[39]
  • Spain is accredited to Tonga from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Tonga does not have an accreditation to Spain.

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Aznar, José María. Eight Years as Prime Minister: A Personal Vision of Spain 1996-2004 (Barcelona: Planeta, 2005).
  • Basora, Adrian A. "US-Spain relations from the perspective of 2009." CIDOB International yearbook (2009): 90–95. online
  • Chari, Raj S., and Paul M. Heywood. "Institutions, European Integration, and the Policy Process in Contemporary Spain." in Democracy and Institutional Development (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2008) pp. 178–202.
  • Closa, Carlos, and Paul M. Heywood, eds. Spain and the European Union (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
  • Esteban, Mario. "Spain's Relations with China: Friends but not Partners." Chinese Political Science Review 1.2 (2016): 373–386 online.
  • Garcia Cantalapiedra, David, and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, Contemporary Spanish Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2014). text
  • Gillespie, Richard (April 2007). "Spanish foreign policy: party alternatives or the pursuit of consensus?". Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans. 9 (1): 29–45. doi:10.1080/14613190701216995. S2CID 154250864.
  • Gold, Peter. "Sovereignty negotiations and Gibraltar's military facilities: How two "red-line" issues became three". Diplomacy and Statecraft 15.2 (2004): 375-384. Covers 2001 to 2003.
  • Heywood, Paul M. "Desperately seeking influence: Spain and the war in Iraq." European Political science 3.1 (2003): 35–40.
  • Iglesias-Cavicchioli, Manuel (Summer–Fall 2007). "A Period of Turbulent Change: Spanish-US Relations Since 2002" (PDF). Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. 8 (2): 113–129. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2009-10-26.
  • Woodworth, Paddy. "Spain Changes Course: Aznar's Legacy, Zapatero's Prospects." World Policy Journal (Summer 2004): 8–26.

Historical

  • Black, Jeremy. The Rise of the European Powers, 1679–1793 (1990) excerpt and text search, 220pp
  • Byrnes, Mark. "Unfinished business: The United States and Franco's Spain, 1944–47." Diplomacy and Statecraft 11.1 (2000): 129–162.
  • Carrió-Invernizzi, Diana. "A new diplomatic history and the networks of Spanish diplomacy in the Baroque Era." International History Review 36.4 (2014): 603–618.
  • Cortada, James W. Spain in the Nineteenth-Century World: Essays on Spanish Diplomacy, 1789–1898 (1994)
  • Cortada, James W. Spain in the Twentieth-Century World: Essays on Spanish Diplomacy, 1898–1978 (1980)
  • Cortada, James W. Two Nations Over Time : Spain and the United States, 1776–1977 (1977) online
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Foreign relations of Spain
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