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Foreign relations of Luxembourg

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In 1921, Luxembourg and Belgium formed the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create an inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs regime. Post-war, Luxembourg became a founding member state of the United Nations, and dropped its policy of neutrality to become a founding member state of NATO. Luxembourg expanded its support for European integration, becoming a founding member state of the Benelux Economic Union (today's Benelux Union), and one of the "inner six" founding member states of the three European Communities; the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), and the European Economic Community (EEC). Subsequently, Luxembourg became a founding member state of the European Union (EU) when the EEC and ECSC were incorporated into it in 1993. Luxembourg is a founding member of the Schengen Area, abolishing internal borders amongst its member states, named after the Luxembourg village where the original agreement — since incorporated into EU law — was signed in 1985. At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy.

Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank, the European Court of Auditors, the secretariat of the European Parliament, the Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat), and other EU bodies.

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Luxembourg maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  United Kingdom 27 November 1879[1]
2  France 10 December 1890[2]
 Holy See January 1891[3][4]
3  Italy 7 February 1891[5]
4  Spain 9 February 1891[6]
5  Netherlands 4 March 1891[5]
6  Russia 7 March 1891[7]
7  Austria 30 April 1891[5]
8  Portugal 21 May 1891[8]
9  Belgium 18 April 1892[5]
10  United States 17 July 1903[9]
11  Denmark 4 June 1906[10]
12  Romania 18 December 1910[11]
13  Brazil 15 April 1911[12]
14   Switzerland 24 November 1917[13]
15  Poland 18 April 1921[14]
16  Finland 24 October 1921[15]
17  Czech Republic 24 April 1922[16]
18  Sweden 25 January 1923[17]
19  Hungary 17 July 1923[18]
20  Guatemala 7 November 1924[19]
21  Japan November 1927[20]
22  Norway 15 April 1931[21]
23  Greece 1933[22]
24  Uruguay 6 January 1934[23]
25  Egypt 14 November 1935[24]
26  Iran 23 May 1936[25]
27  Argentina 29 June 1937[26]
28  Cuba 25 November 1942[27]
29  Canada 3 January 1945[28]
30  Turkey 10 July 1946[29]
31  Philippines 26 August 1946[30]
32  Mexico 8 January 1947[31]
33  Monaco 18 December 1947[32]
34  India 1 July 1948[33]
35  South Africa 1949[34]
36  Israel 16 January 1950[35]
37  Venezuela 14 March 1950[36]
38  Lebanon 21 November 1950[37]
39  Germany 23 April 1951[38]
40  Indonesia 8 January 1952[39]
41  Iraq 12 March 1952[40]
42  Syria 24 July 1953[41]
43  Ecuador 24 April 1956[42]
44  Bulgaria 16 December 1956[43]
45  Serbia 1956[44]
46  Malaysia 1957[45]
47  Morocco 11 April 1958[46]
48  Thailand 16 June 1959[47]
49  Pakistan 5 May 1959[48]
50  Liberia 20 January 1961[49]
51  Mauritania 20 September 1961[50]
52  Gabon 1 December 1961[51]
53  Ireland 20 December 1961[52]
54  South Korea 16 March 1962[53]
55  Peru 16 June 1962[54]
56  Cameroon 7 June 1962[55]
57  Iceland 30 July 1962[56]
58  Guinea 12 September 1962[57]
59  Niger 18 December 1962[58]
60  Jamaica 2 January 1963[59]
61  Burkina Faso 29 January 1963[60]
62  Costa Rica 29 January 1963[60]
63  Ivory Coast 29 January 1963[60]
64  Central African Republic 12 June 1963[61]
65  Chile 10 August 1963[62]
66  Algeria 21 January 1964[63]
67  Chad 28 April 1964[64]
68  Tunisia 28 April 1964[64]
69  Rwanda 27 October 1964[65]
70  Paraguay 26 February 1965[66]
71  Burundi 29 April 1965[67]
72  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 September 1965[68]
73  Mali 15 December 1965[69]
74  Madagascar 13 January 1967[70]
75  Republic of the Congo 10 June 1967[71]
76  Ghana 21 February 1968[72]
77  Senegal 13 June 1968[73]
78  Benin 17 September 1968[74]
79  Malta 3 June 1969[75]
80  Trinidad and Tobago 17 December 1969[76]
81  Cyprus 3 March 1970[77]
82  Australia 18 September 1970[78]
83  Sierra Leone 13 October 1970[79]
84  New Zealand 3 December 1970[80]
85  Fiji January 1971[81]
86  Colombia 21 April 1971[82]
87  Togo 7 March 1972[83]
88  Albania 15 April 1972[84]
89  Sri Lanka 27 July 1972[85]
90  China 16 November 1972[86]
91  Mauritius 28 February 1973[87]
92  Vietnam 15 November 1973[88]
93  Bangladesh 20 November 1973[89]
94  Jordan 5 December 1973[90]
95  Singapore 17 March 1975[91]
96  Gambia 15 April 1975[92]
97    Nepal 25 November 1975[93]
98  Nigeria 29 December 1975[94]
99  Nicaragua 7 July 1976[95]
100  Mongolia 11 July 1976[96]
101  Tonga 1 November 1976[97]
102  Cape Verde 31 March 1977[98]
103  Barbados 5 May 1977[99]
104  Papua New Guinea 15 October 1977[100]
105  Saudi Arabia 10 December 1977[101]
106  Comoros 1 February 1978[102]
107  Honduras 6 July 1978[103]
108  Dominica 1 May 1979[104]
109  Guinea-Bissau 7 December 1979[105]
110  Yemen 10 December 1979[106]
111  Kuwait 8 March 1980[107]
112  Bahrain 14 March 1980[108]
113  Ethiopia 19 March 1980[109]
114  Qatar 3 May 1980[110]
115  United Arab Emirates 6 May 1980[110]
116  Oman 15 September 1980[111]
117  Malawi 28 October 1980[112]
118  Zimbabwe 15 December 1981[113]
119  Sudan 3 May 1984[114]
120  Panama 12 November 1985[115]
121  Mozambique 7 January 1988[116]
122  Maldives 11 July 1988[103]
123  Seychelles 17 February 1989[103]
124  Bolivia 21 December 1990[103]
125  El Salvador 26 April 1991[103]
126  Estonia 29 August 1991[117]
127  Latvia 29 January 1992[118]
128  Slovenia 11 March 1992[119]
129  Croatia 29 April 1992[120]
130  Tajikistan 22 May 1992[121]
131  Kyrgyzstan 26 May 1992[122]
132  Azerbaijan 1 June 1992[123]
133  Uzbekistan 10 June 1992[124]
134  Armenia 10 June 1992[125]
135  Moldova 16 June 1992[126]
136  Kazakhstan 29 June 1992[127]
137  Ukraine 1 July 1992[128]
138  Lithuania 2 July 1992[129]
139  Belarus 9 July 1992[130]
140  Turkmenistan 2 October 1992[131]
141  Slovakia 1 January 1993[132]
142  Marshall Islands 20 July 1993[103]
143  Bosnia and Herzegovina 12 April 1994[133]
144  North Macedonia 19 September 1994[134]
145  Georgia 17 October 1994[135]
146  Andorra 7 April 1995[136]
147  Kenya 20 September 1995[137]
148  Laos 25 September 1997[103]
149  Liechtenstein 6 November 2000[138]
150  San Marino 8 February 2001[139]
151  North Korea 5 March 2001[140]
152  Djibouti 14 June 2001[141]
153  Angola 14 May 2002[103]
154  Cambodia 15 May 2002[103]
155  Equatorial Guinea 9 October 2003[141]
156  Brunei 18 July 2003[103]
157  Afghanistan 13 January 2005[103]
158  Dominican Republic 25 May 2005[103]
159  Botswana 11 May 2006[141]
160  Montenegro 21 September 2006[103]
161  Grenada 1 March 2007[141]
162  Namibia 20 September 2007[142]
163  Antigua and Barbuda 26 September 2007[103]
164  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 26 September 2007[103]
165  East Timor 27 September 2007[103]
166  Bahamas 28 September 2007[103]
167  Haiti 24 February 2008[143]
168  Federated States of Micronesia 24 April 2008[103]
169  Eritrea 2 October 2008[141]
170  Belize 15 May 2009[144]
171  Samoa 2 June 2009[103]
172  Guyana 17 June 2009[103]
173  Saint Kitts and Nevis 18 June 2009[103]
174  Tuvalu 16 September 2009[103]
175  Saint Lucia 23 September 2009[103]
176  Suriname 1 February 2010[103]
177  Nauru 21 May 2010[103]
178  Vanuatu 24 September 2010[103]
179  Solomon Islands 19 November 2010[103]
 Kosovo 16 June 2011[145]
180  Bhutan 1 December 2011[103]
181  South Sudan 22 December 2011[103]
182  Palau 16 February 2012[103]
183  Myanmar 31 July 2012[103]
184  Somalia 27 September 2013[103]
185  São Tomé and Príncipe 10 April 2014[146]
186  Eswatini Unknown
187  Lesotho Unknown
188  Libya Unknown
189  Tanzania Unknown
190  Uganda Unknown
191  Zambia Unknown

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 21 January 1964 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 January 1964[147]
 Angola 14 May 2002 Diplomatic relations were established on 14 May 2002[148]
 Benin 17 September 1968 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 September 1968[149]
 Burkina Faso 29 January 1963 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 January 1963[60]
  • Burkina Faso is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Ouagadougou.
 Burundi 29 April 1965 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 April 1965[150]
 Cameroon 7 June 1962 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 June 1962[151]
 Cape Verde 31 March 1977 Diplomatic relations were established on 31 March 1977[152]
 Central African Republic 12 June 1963 Diplomatic relations were established on 12 June 1963[153]
 Chad 28 April 1964 Diplomatic relations were established on 28 April 1964[64]
 Comoros 1 February 1978 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 February 1978[154]
 Democratic Republic of Congo 7 September 1965 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 September 1965[155]
 Republic of Congo 10 June 1967 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 June 1967[71]
 Cote d'Ivoire 29 January 1963 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 January 1963[60]
 Egypt 14 November 1935 Diplomatic relations were established on 14 November 1935[156]
 Ethiopia 19 March 1980 Diplomatic relations were established on 19 March 1980 when accredited first Ambassador of Ethiopia to Luxembourg (resident in Brussels) Dr. Ghebray Berhane[157]
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Gabon 1 December 1961 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 December 1961[158]
 Gambia 15 April 1975 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 April 1975[159]
 Ghana 21 February 1968 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 February 1968[160]
 Guinea 12 September 1962 Diplomatic relations were established on 12 September 1962[161]
 Guinea-Bissau 7 December 1979 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 December 1979[105]
 Liberia 20 January 1961 Diplomatic relations were established on 20 January 1961[162]
 Madagascar 13 January 1967 Diplomatic relations were established on 13 January 1967[163]
 Malawi 28 October 1980 Diplomatic relations were established on 28 October 1980[164]
 Mali 15 December 1965 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 December 1965[165]
 Mauritania 20 September 1961 Diplomatic relations were established on 20 September 1961[166]
 Mauritius 28 February 1973 Diplomatic relations were established on 28 February 1973[167]
 Morocco 11 April 1958 Diplomatic relations were established on 11 April 1958[168]
 Mozambique 7 January 1988 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 January 1988[169]
 Niger 18 December 1962 Diplomatic relations were established on 18 December 1962[170]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Niamey.
  • Niger is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 Nigeria 29 December 1975 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 December 1975[171]
 Rwanda 27 October 1964 Diplomatic relations were established on 27 October 1964[172]
 Senegal 13 June 1968 Diplomatic relations were established on 13 June 1968[173]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 Seychelles 17 February 1989 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 February 1989[174]
 Sierra Leone 13 October 1970 Diplomatic relations were established on 13 October 1970[175]
 Somalia 27 September 2013 Diplomatic relations were established on 27 September 2013[176] First time countries established diplomatic relations on 19 April 1967[177]
 South Sudan 22 December 2011 Diplomatic relations were established on 22 December 2011[178]
 Sudan 3 May 1984 Diplomatic relations were established on 3 May 1984[114]
 Togo 7 March 1972 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 March 1972[179]
 Tunisia 28 April 1964 Diplomatic relations were established on 28 April 1964[64]
 Zimbabwe 15 December 1981 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 December 1981[113]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 26 September 2007 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 September 2007[180]
 Argentina 29 June 1937 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 June 1937[181]
  • Argentina is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Argentina from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Bahamas 28 September 2007 Diplomatic relations were established on 28 September 2007[182]
 Barbados 5 May 1977 Diplomatic relations were established on 5 May 1977[183]
 Belize 15 May 2008

Diplomatic relations were established on May 15, 2008.[184]

 Bolivia 21 December 1990 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 December 1990[185]
 Brazil 15 April 1911 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 April 1911[12]
  • Brazil is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada 3 January 1945 Diplomatic relations were established on 3 January 1945[186]
 Chile 24 January 1938 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 January 1938[189]
  • Chile is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and maintains an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg maintains an honorary consulate in Santiago.
 Colombia 21 April 1971 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 April 1971[190]
 Costa Rica 29 January 1963 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 January 1963[60]
 Cuba 25 November 1942 Diplomatic relations were established on 25 November 1942[191]
 Dominica 1 May 1979 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 May 1979[192]
 Dominican Republic 25 May 2005 Diplomatic relations were established on 25 May 2005[193]
 El Salvador 26 April 1991 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 April 1991[194]
 Guyana 17 June 2009 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 June 2009[195]
 Honduras 6 July 1978 Diplomatic relations were established on 6 July 1978[196]
 Jamaica 2 January 1963 Diplomatic relations were established on 2 January 1963[197]
 Mexico 8 January 1947 See Luxembourg–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 8 January 1947[198]

In 1980, Prime Minister Pierre Werner paid an official visit to Mexico. In March 1996, Grand Duke Jean paid a visit to Mexico. During the Grand Duke's visit, both nations signed an Air Transportation Agreement. In April 2019, Prime Minister Xavier Bettel paid an official visit to Mexico and met with President Andrés Manuel López Obrador.[199][200]

  • Luxembourg is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and maintains an honorary consulate in Mérida.[201]
  • Mexico is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and maintains an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.[202]
 Nicaragua 7 July 1976 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 July 1976[95]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Managua.
  • Nicaragua is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Panama 12 November 1985 Diplomatic relations were established on 12 November 1985[203]
 Paraguay 26 February 1965 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 February 1965[204]
 Peru 14 June 1962 Diplomatic relations were established on 14 June 1962[205]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 18 June 2009 Diplomatic relations were established on 18 June 2009[206]
 Saint Lucia 23 September 2009 Diplomatic relations were established on 23 September 2009[207]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 26 September 2007 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 September 2007[208]
 Suriname 1 February 2010 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 February 2010[209]
 Trinidad and Tobago 17 December 1969 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 December 1969[210]
 United States 17 July 1903 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 July 1903[211]
Embassy of Luxembourg in Washington, D.C.

The United States, fighting on the Allied side, contributed to Luxembourg's liberation in World War I and World War II. More than 5,000 American soldiers, including U.S. Army General George S. Patton, are buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial near the capital of Luxembourg City, and there are monuments in many towns to American liberators. The strong U.S.-Luxembourg relationship is expressed both bilaterally and through common membership in NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

 Uruguay 6 January 1934 Diplomatic relations were established on 6 January 1934[212]
 Venezuela 14 March 1950 Diplomatic relations were established on 14 March 1950[213]

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 13 January 2005 Diplomatic relations were established on 13 January 2005[214]
 Armenia 11 June 1992

Diplomatic relations were established on 11 June 1992[215]

  • Armenia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium, and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg maintains an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Azerbaijan 1 June 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 June 1992[216]

See Azerbaijan–Luxembourg relations

 Bahrain 24 March 1980 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 March 1980[217]
 Bangladesh 20 November 1973 Diplomatic relations were established on 20 November 1973[218]
 Bhutan 1 December 2011 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 December 2011[219]
 Brunei Darussalam 18 July 2003 Diplomatic relations were established on 18 July 2003[220]
 Cambodia 15 May 2002 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 May 2002[221]
 China 16 November 1972 Diplomatic relations were established on 16 November 1972[222]

See China–Luxembourg relations

 Georgia 17 October 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 October 1992[223]

See Georgia–Luxembourg relations

 India 1 July 1948 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 July 1948[33]

See India–Luxembourg relations

  • India has a consulate general in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in New Delhi.[224]
 Indonesia 8 January 1952 Diplomatic relations were established on 8 January 1952[225]
 Iran 23 May 1936 Diplomatic relations were established on 23 May 1936[226]
 Iraq 12 March 1952 Diplomatic relations were established on 12 March 1952[227]
 Israel 16 January 1950

Diplomatic relations were established on 16 January 1950[228]

In November 1947, Luxembourg voted in favor of the partition plan to create a Jewish state.

  • Israel is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Israel from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg City.
  • The relations became strained after Luxembourg condemned the Israel–United Arab Emirates peace agreement.
 Japan 24 November 1927 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 November 1927[229]
  • Japan has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Jordan 5 December 1973 Diplomatic relations were established on 5 December 1973[230]
 Kazakhstan 29 June 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 June 1992[231]
 Kuwait 8 March 1980 Diplomatic relations were established on 8 March 1980[232]
 Kyrgyzstan 26 May 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 May 1992[233]
 Laos 25 September 1997 Diplomatic relations were established on 25 September 1997[234]
 Lebanon 21 November 1950 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 November 1950[235]
 Malaysia 15 June 1967 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 June 1967[236]
 Maldives 11 July 1988 Diplomatic relations were established on 11 July 1988[237]
 Mongolia 13 July 1976 Diplomatic relations were established on 13 July 1976[238]
 Myanmar 31 July 2012 Diplomatic relations were established on 31 July 2012[239]
   Nepal 27 November 1975 Diplomatic relations were established on 27 November 1975[240]
 North Korea 5 March 2001 Diplomatic relations were established on 5 March 2001[241]
 Oman 15 September 1980 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 September 1980[242]
 Palestine See Luxembourg–Palestine relations
  • Palestine is accredited to Luxembourg from its mission in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Palestine from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg City.
 Philippines 26 May 1961 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 May 1961[243]
 Qatar 3 May 1980 Diplomatic relations were established on 3 May 1980[244]
 Saudi Arabia 10 December 1977 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 December 1977[245]
 Singapore 17 March 1975 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 March 1975[246]
 South Korea 16 March 1962
  • Luxembourg and South Korea established diplomatic relations on 16 March 1962.[247]
  • Both countries have a shipping agreement in 1987 and an air agreement in 2003.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to South Korea from its embassy in Tokyo, Japan.
  • South Korea is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • High-level Exchanges.
  • From Luxembourg to the South Korea.
 Sri Lanka 27 July 1972 Diplomatic relations were established on 27 July 1972[249]
 Syria 24 July 1953 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 July 1953[250]
 Tajikistan 22 May 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 22 May 1992[251]
 Thailand 16 June 1959 Diplomatic relations were established on 16 June 1959[252]
 Timor Leste 27 September 2007 Diplomatic relations were established on 27 September 2007[253]
 Turkey 10 July 1946 See Luxembourg–Turkey relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 10 July 1946[254]

Bilateral relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg gained momentum with the opening of a Turkish Embassy in Luxembourg in 1987.[255]

  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Ankara, which was opened on 29 November 2011.[255]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Luxembourg City.

There are 500 ethnic Turk's living in Luxembourg, 200 of whom have dual citizenship. The trade volume between the two States had reached $217 million in 2011.[255]

Luxembourg strongly supports Turkey's candidacy as a full European Union member.[256][257]

 Turkmenistan 2 October 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 2 October 1992[258]
 United Arab Emirates 6 May 1980 Diplomatic relations were established on 6 May 1980[259]
 Uzbekistan 10 June 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 June 1992[260]
 Vietnam 15 November 1973 See Luxembourg–Vietnam relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 15 November 1973[261]

  • Luxembourg is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 Yemen 10 December 1979 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 December 1979[262]

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 15 February 1972 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 February 1972[263]
 Andorra 7 April 1995 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 April 1995[264]
 Austria 30 January 1891 Diplomatic relations were established on 30 January 1891[5]
  • Austria has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belarus 9 July 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 9 July 1992[265]
 Belgium 18 April 1892 See Belgium–Luxembourg relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 18 April 1892[5]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 12 April 1994 Diplomatic relations were established on 12 April 1994[266]
 Bulgaria 16 December 1956 Diplomatic relations were established on 16 December 1956[267]
 Croatia 29 April 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 April 1992[268]
 Cyprus 3 March 1970 Diplomatic relations were established on 3 March 1970[269]
 Czech Republic 24 April 1922 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 April 1922[270]
 Denmark 4 June 1906 Diplomatic relations were established on 4 June 1906[273]
 Estonia 29 August 1991

Luxembourg recognised Estonia on February 22, 1923, and re-recognised Estonia on August 27, 1991.[clarification needed][275] Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on August 29, 1991[276]

In 1937, a prominent Estonian political leader Artur Sirk, while a fugitive in Luxembourg was found dead, having apparently committed suicide by jumping out a second-story window. Although the Luxembourg Gendarmerie report assumed suicide, because of inconsistencies in the report, the Estonian chargé d'affaires in Paris, Rudolph Mollerson was sent to investigate.[277] Estonian historians including Pusta[278] and Tomingas[279] have argued that the death was an act of defenestration by agents of the first President of Estonia, Konstantin Päts.

As of December 31, 2007, foreign investments made in Estonia originating from Luxembourg totaled 225 million EUR accounting for 2% of the total volume of foreign direct investments. There are about 300 Estonians living in Luxembourg.[275] An Estonian cultural association was founded in 1998.[280] Estonian President Arnold Rüütel made a state visit to Luxembourg in May 2003,[275][281] prime minister Andrus Ansip's in 2006.Luxembourgish Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker visited Estonia in 1999 and 2007.

  • Trade agreement between Estonia and Belgium and Luxembourg (1935)[282]
  • Agreement on Road Transport between Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (came into force 1.12.94)[283]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments (came into force 23.09.99)[284]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the States of Benelux on Readmission of Persons (came into force 1.02.05)
  • Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Income and Capital Tax evasion (signed 23.05.2006)[285][286]
  • Estonia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and maintains an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.[275] Luxembourg is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic).[275]
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 25 October 1921
 France 15 December 1890 See France–Luxembourg relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 15 December 1890[5]

 Germany 8 January 1891 See Germany–Luxembourg relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 8 January 1891[5]

  • Germany has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Greece 1933[22]
 Holy See 9 February 1891 Diplomatic relations were established on 9 February 1891[5]
 Hungary 17 July 1923 Diplomatic relations were established on 17 July 1923[292]
 Iceland 30 July 1962 Diplomatic relations were established on 30 July 1962[293]
 Ireland 20 December 1961 Diplomatic relations were established on 20 December 1961[294]
 Italy 7 February 1891 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 February 1891[296]
 Kosovo 16 June 2011

Diplomatic relations were established on 16 June 2011[299]

Luxembourg recognized the independence of Kosovo on 21 February 2008.[300]

  • Kosovo is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Pristina.
 Latvia 29 January 1992 Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 29 January 1992 and first time established relations on 14 October 1922[301]
  • Latvia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in The Hague, the Netherlands and through an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Latvia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland and through an honorary consulate in Riga.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Liechtenstein 6 November 2000 Diplomatic relations were established on 6 November 2000[302]
 Lithuania 2 July 1992
 Malta 3 June 1969 Diplomatic relations were established on 3 June 1969[305]
  • Malta is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and through an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Moldova 16 June 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 16 June 1992[306]
 Monaco 18 December 1947 Diplomatic relations were established on 18 December 1947[307]
 Montenegro 21 September 2006 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 September 2006[308]
 Netherlands 4 March 1891 Diplomatic relations were established on 4 March 1891[5]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 North Macedonia 19 September 1994 Diplomatic relations were established on 19 September 1994[309]
 Norway 15 April 1931 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 April 1931[310]
 Poland 18 April 1921 See Luxembourg–Poland relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 18 April 1921[311]

  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal 22 July 1891 Diplomatic relations were established on 22 July 1891[5]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Romania 5 December 1910

Diplomatic relations were established on 5 December 1910[312]

  • Luxembourg is accredited to Romania from its embassy in Athens, Greece and maintains two honorary consulates (in Bucharest and Sibiu).
  • Romania has an embassy in Luxembourg City.[313]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Russia 7 March 1891 See Luxembourg–Russia relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 7 March 1891[314][5]

  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Moscow and an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg.
  • Russia has an embassy in the city of Luxembourg City.

Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the United Nations.

In the history of bilateral relations, the first Russian president to come on an official visit to Luxembourg was Vladimir Putin on 24 May 2007. As bilateral trade had more than tripled from US$66.6 million in 2003 to US$228.3 million in 2006, time had come to strengthen the ties between the two countries, energy and finance being the key areas of cooperation between Russia and Luxembourg.

 San Marino 26 September 2000 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 September 2000[315]
 Serbia 23 August 1927 Diplomatic relations were established on 23 August 1927[316]
 Slovakia 1 January 1993 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 January 1993[317]
 Slovenia 11 March 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 11 March 1992[318]
 Spain 18 February 1891 See Luxembourg–Spain relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 18 February 1891[5]

  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sweden 25 January 1923 Diplomatic relations were established on 25 January 1923[319]
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Sweden from its embassy in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Sweden is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Switzerland 24 November 1917 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 November 1917[13]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
 Ukraine 1 July 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 July 1992[320]
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic and through an honorary consulate in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and through an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.[321]
 United Kingdom 8 June 1891 Diplomatic relations were established on 8 June 1891[5]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and NATO.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 18 September 1970 Diplomatic relations were established on 18 September 1970[78]
  • Australia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Australia from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg, City.
 Fiji January 1971 Diplomatic relations were established in January 1971[322]
 Marshall Islands 20 July 1993 Diplomatic relations were established on 20 July 1993[323]
 Micronesia 24 April 2008 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 April 2008[324]
 Nauru 21 May 2010 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 May 2010[325]
 New Zealand 3 December 1970 Diplomatic relations were established on 3 December 1970[326]
  • Luxembourg is accredited to New Zealand from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg, City.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 Palau 16 February 2012 Diplomatic relations were established on 16 February 2012[327]
 Papua New Guinea 15 October 1977 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 October 1977[328]
 Samoa 2 June 2009 Diplomatic relations were established on 2 June 2009[329]
 Solomon Islands 19 November 2010 Diplomatic relations were established on 19 November 2010[330]
 Tonga 1 November 1976 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 November 1976[331]
 Tuvalu 16 September 2009 Diplomatic relations were established on 16 September 2009[332]
 Vanuatu 24 September 2010 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 September 2010[333]

Relations by organization

NATO

United Nations

See also

References

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Further reading