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Draft:Nanoscribe

Nanoscribe
Company typePrivate
Industry3D printing, Bioprinting, Technology
Founded2007
HeadquartersEggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Key people
Martin Hermatschweiler (CEO)

Lars Tritschler (CFO)

Revenue15.8 million (2020)
Number of employees
100+ (2024)
Websitenanoscribe.com

Nanoscribe is the first company to develop, manufacture, and market 3D printers based on two-photon polymerization.[1] Founded in 2007, the company operates in the field of nano- and microscale 3D printing[2][3] Nanoscribe's printers are noted for their high resolution, enabling submicron-scale additive manufacturing.[4][5]

This technology opens up avenues for various research methods and applications in fields such as photonics, microoptics, medical, and communication technologies, which were previously out of reach of conventional fabrication methods.[6]

According to the company, more than 4,000 users from more than 30 countries are now using Nanoscribe 3D printers for basic and applied research.[7] Among them are several universities, including Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), California Institute of Technology, University of Oxford, Imperial College London and ETH Zurich.[8]

History

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Foundation and expansion

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The company was founded in 2007 by Martin Hermatschweiler, Michael Thiel, Georg von Freymann and Martin Wegener as the first spin-off of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT).[6][9] The Carl ZEISS company acquired shares in the company in September 2008.[10]

In 2018, Nanoscribe opened a subsidiary in Shanghai, China,[11] and in 2019 a subsidiary in Boston, USA.[12] In January 2020, Nanoscribe moved into its headquarters at the ZEISS Innovation Hub @ KIT.[13] Since May 2021 Nanoscribe is part of Cellink, now BICO Group AB.[14] In April 2024, the company has more than 100 employees worldwide.[15]

Product development

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The first 3D laser lithography system was shipped in June 2008.[16] In 2013, the company introduced the world's fastest 3D printer for nano- and microstructuring; the first commercial 3D printer for microfabrication to use a galvanometer mirror system, typically accelerating printing speed by a factor of 100.[17]

In 2019, Nanoscribe introduced the new Quantum X product as the world's first two-photon grayscale lithography system.[18] In December 2021, Nanoscribe and Cellink, a sister company within the BICO group, jointly introduced the new Quantum X bio, a 3D bioprinter with submicron resolution for printing biomaterials, bioresins, biocompatible materials and cell-encapsulated materials for live cell printing.[19][20][21]

In January 2022, the company introduced the Quantum X align, the world's first 3D printer with automatic alignment on complex substrates such as optical fibers and photonic chips with nanometer precision.[22]

Technology

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The technologies developed by Nanoscribe are based on two-photon polymerization (2PP), which is physically based on two-photon absorption.[23][24]

Two-photon polymerization

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Two-photon polymerization (2PP) uses a UV-curable photopolymer but exposes it to lower energy near infrared (NIR) light. At least two photons are required simultaneously to activate the chemical curing process with sufficient energy at a given point in the photopolymer volume. This requires high light intensity, which is achieved by femtosecond laser light pulses at the laser focus only. This allows structures to be printed with approximately 100 times higher precision than with 3D printing technologies based on one-photon absorption.[23][24][25]

Two-photon grayscale lithography

[edit]

Nanoscribe's patented Two-Photon Grayscale Lithography (2GL®) combines the exposure dose variation of one-photon grayscale lithography with the submicron resolution and design freedom of two-photon polymerization. With 2GL, the exposure dose can be modulated during the laser scanning process, allowing the size of each voxel to be varied during the printing process. This drastically reduces the number of laser scanning passes required and thus the printing time.[26]

Application areas

[edit]

There are more than 1,800 peer-reviewed scientific publications reporting research primarily based on Nanoscribe systems.[7] A Google Scholar search yields approximately >2,600 publications related to Nanoscribe systems.[27][28]

Science and research

[edit]

Some specific application examples from research:

  • Filter membranes: 3D-printed membranes can filter tumor cells circulating in the blood for early cancer detection.[29]
  • Cell scaffolds: Glioblastoma cell cultures can be studied on 3D printed cell scaffolds under proton radiation.[30]
  • Cochlear implants: A cochlear implant with a 3D-printed steroid reservoir is being developed to reduce further damage to residual hearing.[31]
  • Responsive microstents: Scientists fabricate the world's smallest microstent from soft and reactive components.[32]
  • Microfluidic mixers: A miniaturized 3D mixer for producing drug-loaded nanoparticles is printed directly onto a microfluidic chip.[33]

Industrial mastering

[edit]

In industrial mastering, Nanoscribe's Two-Photon Grayscale Lithography (2GL) has been utilized for prototyping and mastering micro- and nanostructured 2.5D topographies. This technology, when combined with suitable replication processes, allows for the production of these topographies in large quantities and with high precision.[26] Examples of applications include:

Microoptics: High-precision, moldable microoptics are needed in large quantities for applications such as directional lighting, microscopy (e.g., phase plates), miniaturized sensing, or in headsets for virtual or augmented reality.[34][35]

Industrial manufacturing

[edit]

Exemplary applications are:

Microoptical components for Free Space Microoptical Coupling: Free-form microoptics fabricated directly on the optical interfaces of photonic chips or optical fibers provide tailored beam shaping and mode field matching for photonic integrated circuits.[36]

Fiber-based miniature optics: Free-form microoptics can be printed directly onto optical fibers with submicron accuracy for endoscopic imaging.[37]

Awards

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2022: Prism Awards Finalist – the Quantum X align 3D printer is a finalist in the “Manufacturing & Test” category of the Prism Award, presented by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, and Photonics Media[38]

2019: LASER Innovation Award – out of 1300 competitors, the first prize goes to Nanoscribe Quantum X[39]

2018: State Award for Young Companies - Nanoscribe receives the 1st place at the Baden-Württemberg State Awards for Young Companies[6]

2018: Technology Transfer Award 2017/2018 of the German Physical Society (German: Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, DPG) – Nanoscribe, KIT Innovation and Relations Management and KIT Institute of Nanotechnology are jointly awarded for the successful transfer of scientific research into a commercial product[40]

2015: German Entrepreneur Awards Finalist – Nanoscribe is a finalist in the category “Rising Star” with their high-speed 3D printers on the microscale[41][42]

2014: Prism Award for Photonics Innovation – the Photonic Professional GT 3D printer is recognized by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, and Photonics Media in the Advanced Manufacturing category[43]

2011: CyberChampions Award – spin-off from university/research institution[44]

2008: Otto Haxel Award of the "Freundeskreis des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe e.V." for the founding of Nanoscribe GmbH[45]

References

[edit]
  1. ^ Bunea, Ada-Ioana; del Castillo Iniesta, Nuria; Droumpali, Ariadni; Wetzel, Alexandre Emmanuel; Engay, Einstom; Taboryski, Rafael (December 2021). "Micro 3D Printing by Two-Photon Polymerization: Configurations and Parameters for the Nanoscribe System". Micro. 1 (2): 164–180. doi:10.3390/micro1020013. ISSN 2673-8023.
  2. ^ Boissonneault, Tess (2024-02-28). "VoxelMatters Medical AM Focus 2024 eBook". VoxelMatters - The heart of additive manufacturing. Retrieved 2024-04-05.
  3. ^ Jui, Chia-Wei; Trappey, Amy J.C.; Fu, Chien-Chung (2018-12-01). "Discover Patent Landscape of Two-photon Polymerization Technology for the Production of 3D Nano-structure Using Claim-based Approach". Recent Patents on Nanotechnology. 12 (3): 218–230. doi:10.2174/1872210512666180817121454. PMID 30117404.
  4. ^ "Mit dem Mikroroboter unterwegs im Körper – DW – 01.06.2017" [On the move in the body with a microrobot]. dw.com (in German). Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  5. ^ Molitch-Hou, Michael. "Light-Based Computing Era Enabled With 3D Printed Microoptics". Forbes. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  6. ^ a b c "Nanoscribe Wins 1st Prize at the Baden-Württemberg State Awards for Young Companies" (Press release). Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie. 2023-07-11. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  7. ^ a b "Company profile Nanoscribe GmbH & Co. KG" (Company profile). 2024-04-04. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  8. ^ "Half of the Top 10 Universities in the World Already use Nanoscribe's 3D Printers" (Press release). Nanoscribe. 2015-11-30. Retrieved 2024-04-04 – via Additive Manufacturing (AM).
  9. ^ "2018 Fallbeispiele: Nanoscribe" [2018 case studies: Nanoscribe]. gruendungsradar.de (in German). 2018-12-18. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  10. ^ "Carl Zeiss acquires shares in Nanoscribe - News". Silicon Semiconductor. Retrieved 2024-06-06.
  11. ^ Overton, Gail (2018-08-31). "Nanoscribe opens office in China to expand 3D nanoprinting business". Laser Focus World (Press release). Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  12. ^ K, Yosra (2019-08-01). "Nanoscribe opens US offices today". 3D ADEPT MEDIA. Retrieved 2024-06-06.
  13. ^ "Zeiss Innovation Hub: Wo Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft aufeinandertreffen" [Zeiss Innovation Hub: Where science and business meet]. Badische Neueste Nachrichten (in German). 2021-02-08. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  14. ^ "CELLINK Acquires Nanoscribe, Visikol". photonics.com. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  15. ^ "Career at Nanoscribe". Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  16. ^ "Carl Zeiss Acquired Startup Nanoscribe" (PDF). Optik & Photonik (Press release). December 2008. p. 4. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  17. ^ "3D printing on the micrometer scale" (Press release). Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. Retrieved 2024-04-04 – via phys.org.
  18. ^ Boissonneault, Tess (2019-06-24). "Quantum X: Nanoscribe launches first two-photon grayscale lithography system". VoxelMatters. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  19. ^ Sertoglu, Kubi (2021-12-15). "CELLINK and Nanoscribe announce new jointly-developed Quantum X bio 3D printer". 3D Printing Industry. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  20. ^ "Nanoscribe and CELLINK join forces to release the Quantum X bio". AZoNano. 2021-12-16. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  21. ^ "Live Cell Encapsulation: BIO INX Launches New Material". additivemanufacturing.com. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  22. ^ Gambini, Andrea (2022-01-28). "Nanoscribe launches Quantum X align". VoxelMatters. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  23. ^ a b "Nanoscribe GmbH & Co. KG (Hrsg.): Additive manufacturing based on Two-Photon Polymerization". Nanoscribe. 2024-04-04. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  24. ^ a b Sun, Hong-Bo; Kawata, Satoshi (2004), Fatkullin, N.; Ikehara, T.; Jinnai, H.; Kawata, S. (eds.), "Two-Photon Photopolymerization and 3D Lithographic Microfabrication", NMR • 3D Analysis • Photopolymerization, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 169–273, doi:10.1007/b94405, ISBN 978-3-540-40000-4, retrieved 2024-04-04
  25. ^ Deubel, Markus; von Freymann, Georg; Wegener, Martin; Pereira, Suresh; Busch, Kurt; Soukoulis, Costas M. (July 2004). "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications". Nature Materials. 3 (7): 444–447. Bibcode:2004NatMa...3..444D. doi:10.1038/nmat1155. ISSN 1476-4660. PMID 15195083.
  26. ^ a b "Nanoscribe GmbH & Co. KG (Hrsg.): Introducing Two-Photon Grayscale Lithography. May 2024". 2024-05-27. Retrieved 2024-05-27.
  27. ^ "Google scholar". google scholar Photonic Professional. 2024-04-04. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  28. ^ "Google Scholar Quantum X". Google Scholar Quantum X. 2024-04-04. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  29. ^ Jiménez-Zenteno, Alejandro K.; Estève, Aurore; Cayron, Hélène; Bou, Elise; Bourrier, David; Sanson, Sylvain; Calise, Denis; Blatché, Charline; Vieu, Christophe; Malavaud, Bernard; Cerf, Aline (October 2019). "A novel 3D microdevice for the in vivo capture of cancer-associated cells". Medical Devices & Sensors. 2 (5–6). doi:10.1002/mds3.10056. ISSN 2573-802X.
  30. ^ Akolawala, Qais; Rovituso, Marta; Versteeg, Henri H.; Rondon, Araci M. R.; Accardo, Angelo (2022-05-11). "Evaluation of Proton-Induced DNA Damage in 3D-Engineered Glioblastoma Microenvironments". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 14 (18): 20778–20789. doi:10.1021/acsami.2c03706. ISSN 1944-8244. PMC 9100514. PMID 35442634.
  31. ^ Jang, Jongmoon; Kim, Jin-young; Kim, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sangwon; Chou, Namsun; Lee, Seungmin; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Kim, Sohee; Brugger, Juergen; Choi, Hongsoo; Jang, Jeong Hun (October 2019). "A 3D Microscaffold Cochlear Electrode Array for Steroid Elution". Advanced Healthcare Materials. 8 (20): e1900379. doi:10.1002/adhm.201900379. ISSN 2192-2640. PMID 31532887.
  32. ^ de Marco, Carmela; Alcântara, Carlos C. J.; Kim, Sangwon; Briatico, Francesco; Kadioglu, Ahmet; de Bernardis, Gaston; Chen, Xiangzhong; Marano, Claudia; Nelson, Bradley J.; Pané, Salvador (September 2019). "Indirect 3D and 4D Printing of Soft Robotic Microstructures". Advanced Materials Technologies. 4 (9). doi:10.1002/admt.201900332. ISSN 2365-709X.
  33. ^ Oellers, Martin; Lucklum, Frieder; Vellekoop, Michael J. (2019-12-06). "On-chip mixing of liquids with swap structures written by two-photon polymerization". Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. 24 (1): 4. doi:10.1007/s10404-019-2309-8. ISSN 1613-4990.
  34. ^ Kneidinger, A.; Schuster, P.; Thanner, C.; Eibelhuber, M. (2022-05-20). "Advanced manufacturing techniques for wafer-level freeform micro optics with high refractive index". In von Freymann, Georg; Herkommer, Alois M.; Flury, Manuel (eds.). 3D Printed Optics and Additive Photonic Manufacturing III. Vol. 12135. SPIE. pp. 61–67. Bibcode:2022SPIE12135E..09K. doi:10.1117/12.2632072. ISBN 978-1-5106-5146-3.
  35. ^ Eibelhuber, Martin; Smolenski, Jörg (June 2021). "Technique Scales Up High-Volume Manufacturing of Micro-Optics". photonics.com. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  36. ^ "Driving industrial innovation in photonic packaging market". Wiley Industry News. 2022-01-26. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  37. ^ Li, Jiawen; Thiele, Simon; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Verjans, Johan W.; Akers, Emma; Bursill, Christina A.; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Herkommer, Alois M.; Giessen, Harald; McLaughlin, Robert A. (2020-07-20). "Ultrathin monolithic 3D printed optical coherence tomography endoscopy for preclinical and clinical use". Light: Science & Applications. 9 (1): 124. Bibcode:2020LSA.....9..124L. doi:10.1038/s41377-020-00365-w. ISSN 2047-7538. PMC 7371638. PMID 32704357.
  38. ^ "SPIE and Photonics Media announce finalists for 2022 Prism Awards". spie.org. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  39. ^ "Nanoscribe Maskless Lithography System Wins Innovation Award". 2019-06-25. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  40. ^ "Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft vergibt Technologietransferpreis an Karlsruher Einrichtungen" [German Physical Society awards technology transfer prize to Karlsruhe institutions]. idw-online.de. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  41. ^ "Nanoscribe GmbH | Deutscher Gründerpreis". www.deutscher-gruenderpreis.de (in German). Retrieved 2024-06-06.
  42. ^ "RESTUBE gewinnt Deutschen Gründerpreis RESTUBE wins German Founder Award" (Press release) (in German). Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie. 2023-07-11. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  43. ^ "2014 Prism Awards Recognize Photonics Innovation". photonics.com. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  44. ^ "Nanoscribe GmbH gewinnt CyberChampions Award" [Nanoscribe GmbH wins CyberChampions Award] (in German). Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie. 2023-02-15. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
  45. ^ "Mehr unternehmerische Freiheiten und Wettbewerb More entrepreneurial freedom and competition" (Press release) (in German). Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie. 2023-07-11. Retrieved 2024-04-04.
[edit]

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