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Battle of the Terek River

Battle of the Terek River
Part of the Tokhtamysh–Timur war

Upper course of the Terek river, Northern Georgia
Date14 April 1395
Result Timurid victory[1]
Timurid Empire

Golden Horde

Commanders and leaders
Timur Tokhtamysh


  • Modern estimates: ~300,000


  • Modern estimates: >300,000
Casualties and losses


  • Modern estimates: ~100,000


  • Modern estimates: >100,000
  • At least 10,000 deserted

The Battle of the Terek River was the last major battle of the Tokhtamysh–Timur war. It took place on 14 April 1395,[2] at the Terek River, North Caucasus. The result was a victory for Timur.


Tokhtamysh's cavalry attacked the right flank and the center of Timur's army.[3] Instead of forcing Timur's army back, some Golden Horde emirs went over to Timur's side.[3] Timur, along with the defected emirs, defeated the left flank of Tokhtamysh's army, forcing his army into a rout.[3] The victorious army of Timur dispersed Tokhtamysh's army.[3]


While pursuing Tokhtamysh, Timur annihilated the cities of Astrakhan, Sarai,[3] and Azov.[4]


  1. ^ Manz 2000, p. 511.
  2. ^ Buell, Paul D. (2018). Historical Dictionary of the Mongol World Empire. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 265. ISBN 9781538111369.
  3. ^ a b c d e Tucker 2010, p. 316.
  4. ^ Van Donzel 1994, p. 452.


  • Manz, Beatrice (2000). "Timur Lang". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, T.; Bosworth, C. E.; Van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Islam. Vol. X. Brill.
  • Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2010). "April 14, 1395: Central Asia and Russia". A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Vol. One: ca. 3000 BCE–1499 CE. ABC-CLIO.
  • Van Donzel, E., ed. (1994). "Toqtamish, Ghiyath al-Din". Islamic Desk Reference. E.J. Brill.

43°35′N 47°27′E / 43.583°N 47.450°E / 43.583; 47.450

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Battle of the Terek River
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