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Persian: بابل
Babol museum
Watch Tower
Bandpey Jungle
Tekiye Kazem Beyg
Hasir forooshan
Babol is located in Iran
Coordinates: 36°32′51″N 52°40′42″E / 36.54750°N 52.67833°E / 36.54750; 52.67833[1]
 • MayorShahin Kalantari Bengar[2]
 • Total32 km2 (12 sq mi)
−2 up to 50 m (−6 to 150 ft)
 • Total250,217
 • Density7,800/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
Postal Code
Area code011
Vehicle PlateIRAN ج72 , ج82 , ص82
Former NamesBarforoush / Mamatir

Babol (Persian: بابل, pronunciation), known as "Orange Blossom City;" also Romanized as Bābol; formerly known as Barfrouch, is a city in the Central District of Babol County, Mazandaran province, Iran, serving as capital of both the county and the district.[4] Babol is divided into two metropolitan areas (under Iranian law).

At the 2006 census, its population was 198,636 in 55,943 households.[5] The following census in 2011 counted 219,467 people in 67,069 households.[6] The latest census in 2016 showed a population of 250,217 people in 81,572 households.[3]

Babol is in the north of Iran, north-east of Tehran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The city is one of the most important cities in the north of Iran, known as a regional center for education, trade, industry, and medical services.

Babol is a new name for the site of the ancient city of Mamatir, that then was named as Barforush. The city receives abundant rainfall. It is famous for its orange groves.[7]

History and name

Bahman Square Babol in 1946

Founded by the Safavids in the 16th century, it was built on the site of the ancient city of Mamtir (deriving from "Mah Mithra" "great Mithra). Mithra or 'The Mediator' was believed to be the savior of creation from the threat of darkness and the one who stands between the light of Ahura Mazda and the darkness of Ahriman. Babol was formerly called Barforushdeh (meaning Market Town) and Barforush afterwards. In 1931, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty Reza Shah (1878-1944) ordered urban planning efforts to commence in the city and changed its name to Babol, which means city with abundant water supply.[8]

Geography and climate

The city is located approximately 20 kilometers south of the Caspian Sea on the west bank of Babolrud River and receives abundant annual rainfall. Babol borders Babolsar and Fereydunkenar to the north, Qaem Shahr and Shirgah District to the east, Savadkuh to the southeast, Firuzkuh to the South and Amol to the west. Babol University is famous for its spectacular scenery.

Map showing the location of Babol county as well as Babol city in Mazandaran.

The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa, Trewartha: Cs)[9][10]

Climate data for Babol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 12.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.8
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 84.3
Average precipitation days 10 8.9 10.7 7.8 6 4.3 4.3 6.7 6.7 8.1 8.3 9.9 91.7
Average relative humidity (%) 83.4 81.4 80.5 77.6 74.6 71.4 72.6 74.6 76.1 78.3 81.4 84 78.0
Average dew point °C (°F) 5.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 142.6 138.4 145.7 183 238.7 273 269.7 238.7 213 189.1 162 142.6 2,336.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 4.6 4.9 4.7 6.1 7.7 9.1 8.7 7.7 7.1 6.1 5.4 4.6 6.4
Percent possible sunshine 42.5 42 37 43.5 51.4 58.6 56.6 53.3 53 50 47.9 43.1 48.2
Source: 'Weatherbase[11] Weather2visit[12]


In 2012 population census of the city, the population was 219,467 people (79,837 households) and a population of 495,472 people in the located in the city.[citation needed]

Mazandarani people have a background in Tabari ethnicity and speak Mazandarni.[13] Their origin goes back to the Tapuri people, who were forced to migrate to the south coast of the Caspian Sea during the Achaemenid dynasty.[14][15][16]

The native people of Sari, Shahi, Babol, Amol, Nowshahr, Chalus, and Tonekabon are Mazandarani people and speak the Mazandarani language.[17]


The ruins of Shah Abbas I's palace are located in the city. Mohammad Hassan Khan bridge is also one of the most ancient buildings of Mazandaran. It was built by the king Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, the ancestor of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar as the main road from Babol to Amol. Now it is known as the old road of Babol to Amol. Babol also contains Babol Noshirvani Park, the largest park including a playground located in the northern part of Iran, located in the vicinity of Caspian Sea. Babol is home to many important and intact forests and jungles, such as, Shiadeh, in south-east Babol.

Filband, a village near the northern Iranian city of Babol, is famous for its skies which are full of interconnected cumulus clouds, especially in springtime.[18]

Historical and natural attractions

Borje didebani
Babol Jameh Mosque
Sultan Mohamad Taher Tomb Tower
Entrance of the Medical Sciences University of Babol
Mohammad Hassan Khan Bridge
Jameh Mosque
Bagh-e Ferdous
  • Mohammad Hassan Khan bridge
  • Babol Royal Palace
  • Babol Museum
  • Emamzadeh Ghasem
  • Kazem Beik Mosque
  • Watchtower
  • Babol Jameh Mosque
  • Mohaddesin Mosque
  • Tekyeh Moghri Kola
  • Sultan Mohammad Taher Tomb Tower
  • Darvish Fakhr Al-Din Tomb
  • Post Building
  • Head University of Medical Sciences
  • Ibn Shahr Ashub Tomb
  • Sarast Tower
  • Darvish Alam-bazi Tower
  • Hasirforoshan Mosque
  • Azroud Thermal Spring
  • Babolroud
  • Babolkenar Forest Park
  • Historic homes Qajansb
  • Aghajan Nasab House
  • Osia House
  • Najafi Mansion
  • Sheikh Mousa Yaylak and Waterfall
  • Kimoun Waterfall
  • Shiadeh Dam
  • Saghanefar Kija Tekyeh
  • Porang High School
  • Shiadeh Saghanefar
  • Abuol Hasan Kola Saghanefar
  • Mulana Mosque
  • Tirkan Waterfall
  • Haft Waterfall
  • Filband Village
  • Bandpey Village
  • Pir Alam Tekyeh
  • Moftakher ul-Mamalek Caravanserai
  • Sadr Hawza
  • Chahar Suq Mosque
  • Lafoor Jungle
  • Bagh-e Ferdows
  • Noshirvani Park


Commerce and trading are the backbone of the city's economy since it is the largest commercial center for Mazandaran province, partially due to its location at the center of the province and also the large population of villages around the city, making Babol county the most populated county in the province. Babol produces food and textiles — as well as other processed goods, including oranges, lemons, and tangerines. There are many rice farms around the city, and, until about 20 years ago, tea, tobacco, and cotton were processed.

The city is served by Refah Chain Stores Co., Iran Hyper Star, Isfahan City Center, Shahrvand Chain Stores Inc., Kowsar Market,, Ofoq Kourosh chain store.


Almost all of the city transportation is by car, buses and other road vehicles. Thus, Babol is highly dependent on the regional highway network which connects the city to Babolsar 10 km north, Amol 30 km west and Qaemshahr 15 km east. These are all new wide highways.

Babol has access to an airport 55 km away and to a train station 15 km away.

The ports of Fereydunkenar and Babolsar are both located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea with connection to other Caspian ports.

Colleges and universities

Noshirvani University of Technology

As the largest commercial center, the city of Babol also hosts large number of universities province. Universities include:

  • Babol Noshirvani University of Technology The university is an influential center for academic research in Iran, due to which it has been consistently ranked among the top schools in the country. BNUT is currently ranked 1st among all Iranian universities according to Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings. THE has also ranked BNUT between 351st and 400th among world universities, 55th among the world's young universities, as well as 43rd among Asian universities.[19]
  • Babol University of Medical Sciences
  • Mazandaran University of Science and Technology
  • Educators University - Education Center Martyr Rajai Babol
  • PNU - Babol Center
  • PNU - Bandpey Unit
  • Islamic Azad University - Babol Unit
  • University of Applied Science - Babol Unit
  • Babol Vocational College of Imam Sadiq
  • Mazandaran Institute of Technology
  • Rahedanesh Institute of Higher Education
  • Tabari Institute of Higher Education
  • Aryan Institute of Science and Technology
  • Institute of Applied Science of Art and Culture - Unit 4 Of Babol
  • Institute of Applied Science Technology Jahad Daneshgahi
  • Institute of Applied Science -Unit Of Western Bandpey
  • Vocational College of Sama - Babol Unit
  • Vocational College of AzZahra - Babol Unit

Health centers and hotels

  • Negin Hotel
  • Reza Hotel
  • Marjan Hotel
  • Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital
  • Babol Clinic
  • Shahid Beheshti Hospital
  • Fatemeh Al-Zahra Hospital
  • Yahya Nejad Hospital
  • 17 Shahrivar Hospital
  • Mehregan Hospital


Major corporations

  • Iran Khodro Mazandaran
  • Babol Machine Mfg. & Ind
  • MSco
  • Khazar Khodro Babol.Co


Babol is home to the Iranian Basketball Super League team BEEM Mazandaran BC which plays in the city's Shahid Sojoodi Arena. BEEM also had a popular volleyball team in the Iranian Super League in 2008–2009. Now Babol have a 2 Team in wrestling, Bime Razi and Arash Zin. They have a popular football club, Khooneh Be Khooneh. Khooneh Be Khooneh play in the 1st division (after Premier League) in the Iranian system football. Babol was the host of Freestyle Wrestling Club World Cup in December 2018.

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors (22 May 2023). "Babol, Babol County" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  2. ^ "Irna News". (in Persian). Archived from the original on 8 September 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  3. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 02. Archived from the original (Excel) on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  4. ^ Habibi, Hassan (21 June 1369). "Approval of the organization and chain of citizenship of the elements and units of the divisions of Mazandaran province, centered in Sari city". Lamtakam (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Defense Political Commission of the Government Council. Archived from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  5. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 02. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  6. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)". Syracuse University (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 02. Archived from the original (Excel) on 19 January 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  7. ^ Iranian Students' News Agency - ISNA |
  8. ^ "شهرداری بابل". Babol Municipality (in Persian).
  9. ^ "Climate: Babol - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  10. ^ "Babol: Climate Summary". Weatherbase. CantyMedia. Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  11. ^ "Babol, Iran MONTHLY - ALL WEATHER AVERAGES". Weatherbase. CantyMedia. Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  12. ^ "Bābol monthly weather averages". weather 2 visit. Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  13. ^ "Glottolog 4.8 - Mazanderani". Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  14. ^ Borjian, Habib (2004). "Māzandarān: Language and People". Iran & the Caucasus. 8 (2). Brill: 291. doi:10.1163/1573384043076045. JSTOR 4030997.
  15. ^ "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. William Smith, LLD. London. Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1854. ,TAPU´RI". Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  16. ^ Potts, Daniel (15 December 2021). Nomadism in Iran: From Antiquity to the Modern Era. Oxford University Press (published 2014). p. 110. ISBN 9780199330799.
  17. ^ Windfuhr, G. L. 1989. New Iranian languages: Overview. In Rüdiger Schmitt, ed., Compendium linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: L. Reichert. pp. 490.
  18. ^ "Iran's Beauties in Photos: Scenic Village of Filband". 23 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Babol Noshirvani University of Technology". Times Higher Education (THE). 11 November 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
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