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Argentine National Anthem

Himno Nacional Argentino
English: Argentine National Anthem
French transcription for piano by Luis Messemaeckers, published in 1822. This is the oldest sheet music found of the Argentine national anthem outside of Argentina.

National anthem of  Argentina
Also known as"Oíd, mortales, el grito sagrado: ¡Libertad! ¡Libertad! ¡Libertad!" (English: Hear, mortals, the sacred cry: Freedom! Freedom! Freedom!)
LyricsVicente López y Planes, 1812
MusicBlas Parera, 1813
Adopted11 May 1813 (1813-05-11)
Audio sample
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version

The "Argentine National Anthem" (Spanish: Himno Nacional Argentino) is the national anthem of Argentina. Its lyrics were written by the Buenos Aires-born politician Vicente López y Planes and the music was composed by the Spanish musician Blas Parera.[1] The work was adopted as the sole official song on 11 May 1813, three years after the May Revolution; 11 May is therefore now Anthem Day in Argentina.

Some first, quite different, anthems were composed from 1810; a version was then introduced in 1813, which was used throughout the 19th century. What is now officially codified as the state's national anthem is shorter than the original composition and comprises only the first and last verses and the chorus of the 1813 "Patriotic March", omitting much emotional text about the struggle for independence from Spain ("with strong arms they tear to pieces the arrogant Iberian lion").

Etymology

The third Argentine national anthem was originally named "Marcha Patriótica" (English: Patriotic March), later renamed "Canción Patriótica Nacional" (English: "National Patriotic Song"), and then "Canción Patriótica" (English: "Patriotic Song"). It has been called "Himno Nacional Argentino" since it was published with that name in 1847.

History

The Argentine National Anthem being played for the first time in Mariquita Sánchez's house (painting by Pedro Subercaseaux)

The first Argentine national anthem was the "Patriotic March", published on 15 November 1810 in the Gazeta de Buenos Ayres. It had lyrics by Esteban de Luca and music by Blas Parera. This original composition made no reference to the name of Argentina (the country was not formally named "República Argentina" until 1826, although it was referred to as such) or an independentist will, and talked instead about Spain being conquered by France in the Peninsular War, the absolutist restoration begun by the Council of Regency, and the need to keep the republican freedoms achieved so far in the Americas: "Spain was victim / of the plotting Gaul / because to the tyrants / she bent her neck / If there treachery / has doomed a thousands cities / let sacred freedom and union reign here / Let the father to the sons / be able to say / enjoy rights / that I did not enjoy".[2]

In mid-1812, the ruling triumvirate ordered the Buenos Aires Cabildo to commission a national anthem. Cayetano Rodríguez, a Franciscan friar, wrote a text that was approved on 4 August. The Catalan musician Blas Parera, music director of the local theater, set it to music and performed it for the first time with the orchestra he conducted on 1 November.[3]

Less than a year later the Assembly of Year XIII estimated that the song was not effective enough to serve as a national anthem. On 6 March 1813 several poets were asked to submit lyrics. The poem by the lawyer Vicente López y Planes was unanimously considered the best. It was approved as the "sole national march" ("única marcha nacional") on 11 May 1813. Parera was asked to compose a new musical setting around the same date. He must have finished the piece in a few days. Oral tradition has it that the premiere took place on 14 May 1813, at the home of the aristocrat Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson, but there is no documentary evidence of that.[4] If this is true, then Parera, contrary to certain misconceptions, wrote quickly and under no visible coercion. The published song sheet is dated 14 May 1813. He again conducted the official premiere in the theater on 28 May, and was paid 200 pesos.[5]

Music sheet found in Santa Ana de Velasco, Bolivia, c. 1860

The composition was then known as Canción Patriótica Nacional (National Patriotic Song), and later simply as Canción Patriótica (Patriotic Song), but in Juan Pedro Esnaola's early arrangement, dated around 1848, it appeared under the title Himno Nacional Argentino, and the name has been retained until today.[6] In the complete version of the Anthem of May (as was christened by López) it is noted that the political vision portrayed is not only Argentine, but Latin American. The lyrics are ardently pro-independence and anti-Spanish, as the country was at that time fighting for its independence from Spain.[7]

The song became popular immediately. Within ten years documented performances took place throughout Argentina, and also in Chile, Peru, and Colombia until they had their own national anthems.[8] Different versions emerged, making mass singing difficult; several reforms were then proposed. In 1860 Esnaola was commissioned to create an official version. He took the task to heart, making many changes to the music, including a slower tempo, a fuller texture, alterations to the melody, and enrichment of the harmony. In 1927 a committee produced a historicist version that undid several of Esnaola's changes, but introduced new problems in the sung line. After a heated public debate fueled by the newspaper La Prensa, this version was rejected and, following the recommendations of a second committee, Esnaola's arrangement was officially reinstated.[9] In 1944 it was confirmed as the official state anthem.

Throughout the 19th century the anthem was sung in its entirety. However, once harsh feelings against Spain had dissipated, and the country had become home to many Spanish immigrants, a modification was introduced by a decree of President Julio Argentino Roca on 30 March 1900:

"Without producing alterations in the lyrics of the National Anthem, there are in it verses that perfectly describe the concept that nations universally have regarding their anthems in peaceful times, and that harmonize with the serenity and dignity of thousands of Spanish that share our living, those that can and must be preferred to be sung in official parties, for they respect the traditions and the law in no offense to anyone, the President of the Republic decrees that: In official or public parties, as well as in public schools, shall be sung only the first and last verses and the chorus of the National Song sanctioned by the General Assembly on May 11, 1813."

Controversy

The song includes a line that has given rise to controversy: Buenos--Ayres se [o]pone á la frente De los pueblos de la ínclita union. In the manuscript and an early printed song-sheet the word opone is used; a slightly later version of the song-sheet correcting obvious errors such as spelling mistakes was issued with the same date of 14 May 1813, but with opone changed to pone. The meaning reverses: "Buenos Aires opposes the front of the people of the union" to "Buenos Aires positions itself at the front ...". The original opone has been interpreted as advancing part of the centralist views in Buenos Aires, but has also been considered a "tragical misprint".[10] In many other lines the anthem goes beyond the Argentine theater of the Spanish American wars of independence and references events in Mexico, Central America, Northern South America, and Upper Peru.[11] The growing ideas of independence are reflected in lines such as "On the surface of the earth rises a glorious new nation, her head is crowned with laurels, and a Lion lies defeated at her feet". This portrays not just Spanish absolutism, but Spain itself, as the enemy.[12]

The words strongly attacking Spain were no longer sung.[13]

Usage

Performance of the national anthem is mandatory during all official events, and Argentines in attendance are expected to stand up and sing it. Radio broadcasters voluntarily perform the anthem at midnight, while TV channels do so before closing down their daily broadcast. On national holidays, it is mandatory to perform the national anthem at midnight.

The national anthem is ruled in Argentine law by Decree 10302/1944.[14]

The rock musician Charly García broke legal regulations dealing with the reproduction of the song when he included an idiosyncratic cover version in his 1990 album Filosofía barata y zapatos de goma, stirring much controversy.[15] In 1998 various Argentine artists reedited the anthem and other patriotic songs in the joint album El Grito Sagrado. Other singers followed on their footsteps recreating the piece in their own ways.

A line from the original version of the national anthem was used as the Argentine title of the 1928 film known in English as The Charge of the Gauchos.

The national anthem appears at the beginning of the 1985 film The Official Story, an Academy Award winner.

Short instrumental versions

Due to the excessive length of the official full-length version, which has a duration of around three to four minutes, during international sporting events such as professional soccer games, the Rugby World Cup, and the Olympics, only the instrumental introduction (which has a duration of around 1 minute) is played. Another variation is to play the instrumental introductory section followed by the last three lines (with the third line repeated). Since 2019 in professional soccer games, the final part of the anthem is played, which consists of the instrumental part before the chorus, the chorus, and the coda. [16] The Olympic Games currently uses an abridged version of the anthem which consists of the entire modern version's lyrics, with the pre-chorus instrumental omitted. Although traditional, these arrangements are not recognized by Argentine law.

Lyrics

Modern version

The following is the modern version, adopted in 1924, omitting the long anti-Spanish middle section.

Spanish original[17] English translation

Oíd, mortales, el grito sagrado:
"¡Libertad! ¡Libertad! ¡Libertad!"
Oíd el ruido de rotas cadenas
ved en trono a la noble igualdad

Ya su trono dignísimo abrieron
las Provincias Unidas del Sud
y los libres del mundo responden:
𝄆 "¡Al gran pueblo argentino, salud!" 𝄇
𝄆 Y los libres del mundo responden:
"¡Al gran pueblo argentino, salud!" 𝄇

Sean eternos los laureles,
𝄆 que supimos conseguir. 𝄇
Coronados de gloria vivamos
¡O juremos con gloria morir!
𝄆 ¡O juremos con gloria morir! 𝄇

Hear, mortals, the sacred cry:
"Freedom! Freedom! Freedom!"
Hear the sound of broken chains
See noble equality enthroned.

Their most worthy throne have now opened
The United Provinces of the South.
And the free people of the world reply:
𝄆 "To the great Argentine people, hail!" 𝄇
𝄆 And the free ones of the world reply:
"To the great Argentine people, hail!" 𝄇

May the laurels be eternal
𝄆 that we were able to achieve 𝄇
Let's live crowned in glory
Or let's swear to die with glory!
𝄆 Or let's swear to die with glory! 𝄇

Full lyrics

Spanish original[18][19] English translation

I
Oíd, mortales, el grito sagrado:
¡Libertad, libertad, libertad!
Oíd el ruido de rotas cadenas,
Ved en trono a la noble igualdad.
Se levanta a la faz de la Tierra
una nueva y gloriosa Nación,
coronada su sien de laureles,
𝄆 y a sus plantas rendido un león. 𝄇
𝄆 coronada su sien de laureles,
y a sus plantas rendido un león. 𝄇

Coro:
Sean eternos los laureles,
𝄆 que supimos conseguir 𝄇
Coronados de gloria vivamos
¡o juremos con gloria morir!
𝄆 ¡o juremos con gloria morir! 𝄇

II
De los nuevos campeones los rostros
Marte mismo parece animar
la grandeza se anida en sus pechos:
a su marcha todo hacen temblar.
Se conmueven del Inca las tumbas,
y en sus huesos revive el ardor,
lo que va renovando a sus hijos
𝄆 de la Patria el antiguo esplendor, 𝄇
𝄆 lo que va renovando a sus hijos
de la Patria el antiguo esplendor. 𝄇

Coro

III
Pero sierras y muros se sienten
retumbar con horrible fragor:
todo el país se conturba por gritos
de venganza, de guerra y furor.
En los fieros tiranos la envidia
escupió su pestífera hiel;
su estandarte sangriento levantan
𝄆 provocando a la lid más cruel, 𝄇
𝄆 su estandarte sangriento levantan
provocando a la lid más cruel. 𝄇

Coro

IV
¿No los véis sobre México y Quito
arrojarse con saña tenaz
y cuál lloran, bañados en sangre,
Potosí, Cochabamba y La Paz?
¿No los véis sobre el triste Caracas
luto y llantos y muerte esparcir?
¿No los véis devorando cual fieras
𝄆 todo pueblo que logran rendir? 𝄇
𝄆 ¿No los véis devorando cual fieras
todo pueblo que logran rendir? 𝄇

Coro

V
A vosotros se atreve, argentinos,
el orgullo del vil invasor;
vuestros campos ya pisa contando
tantas glorias hollar vencedor.
Mas los bravos, que unidos juraron
su feliz libertad sostener,
a estos tigres sedientos de sangre
𝄆 fuertes pechos sabrán oponer, 𝄇
𝄆 a estos tigres sedientos de sangre
fuertes pechos sabrán oponer. 𝄇

Coro

VI
El valiente argentino a las armas
corre ardiendo con brío y valor,
el clarín de la guerra, cual trueno,
en los campos del Sud resonó.
Buenos Ayres se opone a la frente
de los pueblos de la ínclita unión,
y con brazos robustos desgarran
𝄆 al ibérico altivo león, 𝄇
𝄆 y con brazos robustos desgarran
al ibérico altivo león. 𝄇

Coro

VII
San José, San Lorenzo, Suipacha,
ambas Piedras, Salta y Tucumán,
La Colonia y las mismas murallas
del tirano en la Banda Oriental.
Son letreros eternos que dicen:
aquí el brazo argentino triunfó,
aquí el fiero opresor de la Patria
𝄆 su cerviz orgullosa dobló, 𝄇
𝄆 aquí el fiero opresor de la Patria
su cerviz orgullosa dobló. 𝄇

Coro

VIII
La victoria al guerrero argentino
con sus alas brillante cubrió,
y azorado a su vista el tirano
con infamia a la fuga se dio.
Sus banderas, sus armas se rinden
por trofeos a la libertad,
y sobre alas de gloria alza el pueblo
𝄆 trono digno a su gran majestad, 𝄇
𝄆 y sobre alas de gloria alza el pueblo
trono digno a su gran majestad. 𝄇

Coro

IX
Desde un polo hasta el otro resuena
de la fama el sonoro clarín,
y de América el nombre enseñando
les repite: "¡Mortales, oíd!:
ya su trono dignísimo abrieron
las Provincias Unidas del Sud".
Y los libres del mundo responden:
𝄆 "Al gran pueblo argentino, ¡salud!" 𝄇
𝄆 Y los libres del mundo responden:
"Al gran pueblo argentino, ¡salud!" 𝄇

Coro

I
Oh, hear ye mortals, the sacred cry:
Liberty, liberty, liberty!
Hear the noise of chains broken,
see noble Equality in its throne.
On the face of the Earth rises
a new and glorious Nation,
its brow crowned with laurels,
𝄆 and a Lion defeated at its feet, 𝄇
𝄆 its brow crowned with laurels,
and a Lion defeated at its feet. 𝄇

Chorus:
May eternal be the laurels,
𝄆 That we knew how to win 𝄇
Crowned in glory, let's live
or let's swear with glory to die!
𝄆 Or let's swear with glory to die! 𝄇

II
The faces of the new champions
Mars himself seems to encourage
Greatness makes its nest in their chests:
at their march they make everything tremble.
The tombs of the Inca are shaken,
and the passion returns to their bones
which begins to renew, for their children,
𝄆 their Fatherland's ancient splendour, 𝄇
𝄆 which begins to renew, for their children,
their Fatherland's ancient splendour. 𝄇

Chorus

III
But mountans and walls are felt
echoing with horrible noise:
the whole country is disturbed by cries
of revenge, of war and uproar.
The envy within the fierce tyrants
spat its pestipherous bile;
their bloody standard they raise
𝄆 provoking the cruelest fight, 𝄇
𝄆 their bloody standard they raise
provoking the cruelest fight. 𝄇

Chorus

IV
Don't you see them over Mexico and Quito
lunge forth with stubborn rage
and how cry, bathed in blood,
Potosí, Cochabamba and La Paz?
Don't you see them over sad Caracas
sow grief and tears and death?
Don't you see them devour like beasts
𝄆 every people that surrenders to them? 𝄇
𝄆 Don't you see them devour like beasts
every people that surrenders to them? 𝄇

Chorus

V
It challenges you, Argentines,
the pride of the vile invader;
your fields he stomps on, counting
all the glorious victories he left behind.
But the brave men that swore, united,
their merry liberty to uphold,
these bloodthirsty tigers
𝄆 with strong chests they'll know to face, 𝄇
𝄆 these bloodthirsty tigers
with strong chests they'll know to face. 𝄇

Chorus

VI
The valiant Argentine to arms
runs burning with strength and valour.
The bugle of war, like thunder,
echoed in the fields of the South.
Buenos Ayres resists, at the front
of the peoples of the illustrious Union,
and with strong arms they tear apart
𝄆 the arrogant Iberian lion
, 𝄇
𝄆 and with strong arms they tear apart
the arrogant Iberian lion. 𝄇

Chorus

VII
San José, San Lorenzo, Suipacha,
both Piedras, Salta and Tucumán,
La Colonia and the very walls
of the tyrant in the Banda Oriental.
Are eternal signboards that say:
here the Argentine arm triumphed,
here the fierce oppressor of the Fatherland
𝄆 bent his proud neck, 𝄇
𝄆 here the fierce oppressor of the Fatherland
bent his proud neck. 𝄇

Chorus

VIII
The Argentine warrior Victory
covered with her shining wings,
and dismayed at her sight the tyrant
with infamy took to flight.
His flags, his arms are surrendered
as trophies to Liberty,
and on wings of glory she raises the people,
𝄆 a throne worthy of their great majesty, 𝄇
𝄆 and on wings of glory she raises the people,
a throne worthy of their great majesty. 𝄇

Chorus

IX
From one pole to the other echoes
the resounding bugle of fame,
and of America, teaching its name,
it repeats: "Mortals, hear ye:
Now the United Provinces of the South
have opened their most worthy throne".
And the free people of the world reply:
𝄆 "To the great Argentine people: cheers!" 𝄇
𝄆 And the free people of the world reply:
"To the great Argentine people: cheers!" 𝄇

Chorus

References

  1. ^ "Símbolos Nacionales" [National Symbols] (in Spanish). Presidency of the Argentine Nation. Retrieved 21 November 2011. La necesidad de tener una canción patriótica, que surgió con la Revolución de Mayo y que el Triunvirato supo comprender, se ve plasmada hoy en el Himno Nacional Argentino, con música de Blas Parera, letra de Vicente López y Planes, y arreglo de Juan P. Esnaola.
  2. ^ Galasso, Norberto (2000). Seamos libres y lo demás no importa nada [Let us be free and nothing else matters] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Colihue. p. 103. ISBN 978-950-581-779-5. España fue presa / del Galo sutil / porque a los tiranos / rindió la cerbiz. / Si allá la perfidia / perdió a pueblos mil / libertad sagrada / y unión reine aquí / El padre a sus hijos / pueda ya decir / Gozad de derechos / que no conocí.
  3. ^ Vega, Carlos (1962). El Himno Nacional Argentino [The Argentine National Anthem] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Eudeba. pp. 15–18.
  4. ^ Galasso, p. 102.
  5. ^ Vega, El Himno Nacional Argentino, pp. 22–27.
  6. ^ Vega, El Himno Nacional Argentino, pp. 88–89.
  7. ^ "Argentina". NationalAnthems.me. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2011. The original lyrics of the anthem included harsh attacks on Spain, the former colonial power.
  8. ^ Vega, El Himno Nacional Argentino, pp. 30–41.
  9. ^ Buch, Esteban (January 1994). O juremos con gloria morir: historia de una épica de estado [Or swear to die gloriously: history of a state epic] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. pp. 103–114. ISBN 978-950-07-0964-4.
  10. ^ The Patriotic March written by Vicente López: Depiction of a historical scene of tension. Analysis of the original Marcha Patriótica, in Spanish, with abstract in English.
  11. ^ Galasso, pp. 102–103.
  12. ^ Galasso, p. 103.
  13. ^ Buch, O juremos con gloria morir, pp. 87–92.
  14. ^ "Decreto 10302/1944" [Decree 10302/1944] (in Spanish). Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  15. ^ Buch, O juremos con gloria morir, pp. 147–156.
  16. ^ "The Argentina national team sang the anthem on all television channels a few hours before the final against France". 18 December 2022.
  17. ^ "Himno Nacional". Embassy in Japan. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  18. ^ "Símbolos Nacionales". Argentina.gob.ar (in Spanish). 26 October 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  19. ^ Sousa, John Philip (1890). National, Patriotic and Typical Airs of All Lands: With Copious Notes. H. Coleman. p. 31.

Notes

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