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2016 Galician regional election

2016 Galician regional election

← 2012 25 September 2016 2020 →

All 75 seats in the Parliament of Galicia
38 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered2,701,932 0.2%
Turnout1,448,962 (53.6%)
1.3 pp
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Alberto Núñez Feijóo Luis Villares Xoaquín Fernández Leiceaga
Party PP En Marea PSdeG–PSOE
Leader since 15 January 2006 19 August 2016 28 May 2016
Leader's seat Pontevedra Lugo A Coruña
Last election 41 seats, 45.8% 9 seats, 13.9%[a] 18 seats, 20.6%
Seats won 41 14 14
Seat change 0 5 4
Popular vote 682,150 273,523 256,381
Percentage 47.6% 19.1% 17.9%
Swing 1.8 pp 5.2 pp 2.7 pp

  Fourth party
 
Leader Ana Pontón
Party BNGNós
Leader since 28 February 2016
Leader's seat A Coruña
Last election 7 seats, 10.1%
Seats won 6
Seat change 1
Popular vote 119,446
Percentage 8.3%
Swing 1.8 pp

Constituency results map for the Parliament of Galicia

President before election

Alberto Núñez Feijóo
PP

Elected President

Alberto Núñez Feijóo
PP

The 2016 Galician regional election was held on Sunday, 25 September 2016, to elect the 10th Parliament of the autonomous community of Galicia. All 75 seats in the Parliament were up for election. The election was held simultaneously with a regional election in the Basque Country.

Alberto Núñez Feijóo announced the election would be brought forward to September, after initially scheduling to hold it throughout October, following Lehendakari Iñigo Urkullu's announcement of a Basque election for 25 September.[1][2] Feijóo defended his decision in that it would make "no sense" to hold the election only weeks after the Basque poll, specially considering the state of political instability in Spain over the government formation process after the general election in June.[3] The election took place in a situation in which the Spanish political landscape had undergone a major transformation within a short time, with a decrease in support for the People's Party (PP) and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) nationally and the emergence of new parties such as Podemos and Citizens (C's).

Feijóo's PP, with 47.6% and 41 seats, went on to secure a third consecutive absolute majority, the only one at the time in Spain after the 2015 electoral cycle. The Podemos-supported En Marea list, which had already achieved major breakthroughs in the region at the 2015 and 2016 general elections, placed narrowly ahead of the Socialists' Party of Galicia (PSdeG–PSOE) which scored the worst result of its history in a Galician regional election. Concurrently, the Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) saw a slight drop in support but was able to outperform opinion poll predictions of an electoral meltdown. Finally, with 3.4%, Cs fell well below their aspirations of entering parliament, failing to secure any seat.[4]

The results of the Basque and Galician elections, both of which saw very poor PSOE's performances after being overtaken by the Podemos-led alliances and polling at record-low levels of support,[5] prompted dissenters within the party—led by Andalusian president Susana Díaz—to call for Pedro Sánchez's resignation as PSOE secretary-general.[6][7] Sánchez's refusal to resign and his announcement of a party congress for later in the year—amid an ongoing government formation process and with the growing risk of a third general election in a row being held in Spain—led to an attempt from his critics to force his downfall,[8][9] triggering a severe party crisis and a break down of party discipline which led to Sánchez's ousting on 1 October 2016,[10] a divided PSOE abstaining in Mariano Rajoy's investiture on 29 October and a subsequent party leadership election in 2017 which would see Sánchez returning to his post of secretary-general and taking full control over the party.[11][12]

Overview

Electoral system

The Parliament of Galicia was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Galicia, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution and the Galician Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a regional president.[13] Voting for the Parliament was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over 18 years of age, registered in Galicia and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Additionally, Galicians abroad were required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[14]

The 75 members of the Parliament of Galicia were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with an electoral threshold of five percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra, with each being allocated an initial minimum of 10 seats and the remaining 35 being distributed in proportion to their populations.[13][15]

As a result of the aforementioned allocation, each Parliament constituency was entitled the following seats:

Seats Constituencies
25 A Coruña(+1)
22 Pontevedra
14 Lugo(–1), Ourense

The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[16]

Election date

The term of the Parliament of Galicia expired four years after the date of its previous election, unless it was dissolved earlier. The election decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of parliament and published on the following day in the Official Journal of Galicia (DOG), with election day taking place between the fifty-fourth and the sixtieth day from publication. The previous election was held on 21 October 2012, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 21 October 2016. The election decree was required to be published in the DOG no later than 27 September 2016, with the election taking place up to the sixtieth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Parliament on Saturday, 26 November 2016.[13][15]

The president had the prerogative to dissolve the Parliament of Galicia and call a snap election, provided that it did not occur before one year had elapsed since a previous dissolution under this procedure. In the event of an investiture process failing to elect a regional president within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Parliament was to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called.[17]

Background

While the People's Party (PP) under Alberto Núñez Feijóo had been able to remain at the helm of the Xunta de Galicia following the 2012 regional election, the party struggled to maintain its electoral standing in the ensuing years as a result of the corruption scandals beleaguering the party at the national level.[18] In the 2014 European Parliament election, the PP obtained its worst result since 1989 up until that time, securing 35.2% of the vote though remaining in first place regionally as a result of a collapse in the vote for the opposition Socialists' Party of Galicia (PSdeG–PSOE) and Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG).[19]

The emergence of Podemos and Citizens (C's) and the reorganization of the political space of non-Galician nationalists to the left of the PSOE, including the late Galician Left Alternative (AGE) comprising United Left (EU) and Anova, into the local "tides" (Spanish: mareas)—popular unity candidacies established at the local level to contest the 2015 local elections, such as Marea Atlántica, Compostela Aberta or Ferrol en Común, among others—brought about the PP's downfall from the local governments of the main Galician urban centres and in left-from-centre parties securing much of the local power in Galicia, with the mareas newly found popularity coming at the expense of both the PSdeG and the BNG.[20][21][22] The establishment of the En Marea alliance between Podemos, EU and Anova would see the PP seeing off its worst electoral result in a general election on 20 December 2015,[23] although the party would see a slight recovery in the next general election held in June 2016.[24]

After his defeat in the 2012 election, Pachi Vázquez announced his intention to abandon the PSdeG's leadership within a year and to allow for a primary election to be held to elect his successor.[25] The primaries were held on 7 September 2013, with José Ramón Gómez Besteiro emerging as the winner with 77% of the votes,[26] subsequently ratified at a special party congress held on 29 September.[27] Gómez Besteiro came under public scrutiny after being indicted on 3 July 2015 for four crimes, including influence peddling, bribery, prevarication and a crime against regional planning, allegedly committed during Besteiro's time in the local government of Lugo in 2005.[28] On 12 March 2016, Besteiro was accused of six further crimes—new bribery, prevarication and influence peddling crimes, as well as abuse of public administrations, subsidy fraud and embezzlement of public funds[29]—which prompted him to announce the following day his declination to be the party's leading candidate to the Xunta de Galicia in the next regional election.[30] Mounting pressure from his party's colleagues, however, eventually led to Besteiro also resigning as party leader on 18 March.[31] Xoaquín Fernández Leiceaga was elected on 28 May through a primary election to be Besteiro's replacement as candidate to the Xunta,[32] while a management committee took charge of the party.[33]

The national PSOE was also beleaguered by an internal crisis over Pedro Sánchez's leadership as a result of the party having secured its worst electoral results since the Spanish transition to democracy in the 2015 and 2016 general elections,[34][35] with Sánchez himself having announced an early party congress, to be held at some point following the Basque and Galician elections, in which he would be running for re-election.[36][37] The PSOE branches in both regions were widely seen as being supportive of Sánchez, prompting dissenters to frame the elections as a test on Sánchez and of the broader political mood in Spain after nine months of political impasse over the government formation process.[38]

Parliamentary composition

The Parliament of Galicia was officially dissolved on 2 August 2016, after the publication of the dissolution decree in the Official Journal of Galicia.[39] The table below shows the composition of the parliamentary groups in the chamber at the time of dissolution.[40]

Parliamentary composition in August 2016[41]
Groups Parties Legislators
Seats Total
People's Parliamentary Group of Galicia PP 41 41
Socialists' Parliamentary Group of Galicia PSdeG–PSOE 18 18
Galician Nationalist Bloc's Parliamentary Group BNG 7 7
Galician Left Alternative's Parliamentary Group EU 4 6
Anova 2
Mixed Parliamentary Group Cerna 2 3
INDEP 1[b]

Parties and candidates

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one percent of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election, disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates.[15][43]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Gov. Ref.
Votes (%) Seats
PP
List
Alberto Núñez Feijóo Conservatism
Christian democracy
45.80% 41 checkY [44]
[45]
PSdeG–
PSOE
List
Xoaquín Fernández Leiceaga Social democracy 20.61% 18 ☒N [32]
En Marea
List
Luis Villares Galician nationalism
Direct democracy
Democratic socialism
13.91%[a] 9 ☒N [46]
[47]
[48]
BNGNós Ana Pontón Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
10.11% 7 ☒N [49]
[50]
[51]
C's Cristina Losada Liberalism New party ☒N [52]

Campaign

Party slogans

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Ref.
PP « En Galicia sí » "In Galicia, yes" [53][54]
PSdeG–PSOE « Unha resposta nova » "A new response" [53][55]
En Marea « Un país xusto » "A fair country" [56]
BNGNós « Construír Galiza con ilusión, Galiza contigo » "Build Galicia with hope, Galicia with you" [53][57]
C's « No nos conformemos. Galicia merécese máis »[c] "Don't conform. Galicia deserves more" [58]

Election debates

2016 Galician regional election debates
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present[d]  
PP PSdeG En Marea BNG C's Audience Ref.
12 September TVG Marta Darriba
Kiko Novoa
P
Feijóo
P
Leiceaga
P
Villares
P
Pontón
P
Losada
15.3%
(151,000)
[59]
[60]

Opinion polls

The tables below list opinion polling results in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a poll.

Voting intention estimates

The table below lists weighted voting intention estimates. Refusals are generally excluded from the party vote percentages, while question wording and the treatment of "don't know" responses and those not intending to vote may vary between polling organisations. When available, seat projections determined by the polling organisations are displayed below (or in place of) the percentages in a smaller font; 38 seats were required for an absolute majority in the Parliament of Galicia.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls   Exit poll

Voting preferences

The table below lists raw, unweighted voting preferences.

Victory preferences

The table below lists opinion polling on the victory preferences for each party in the event of a regional election taking place.

Victory likelihood

The table below lists opinion polling on the perceived likelihood of victory for each party in the event of a regional election taking place.

Preferred President

The table below lists opinion polling on leader preferences to become president of the Regional Government of Galicia.

Results

Overall

Summary of the 25 September 2016 Parliament of Galicia election results
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
People's Party (PP) 682,150 47.56 +1.76 41 ±0
In Tide (En Marea)1 273,523 19.07 +5.16 14 +5
Socialists' Party of Galicia (PSdeG–PSOE) 256,381 17.87 –2.74 14 –4
Galician Nationalist BlocWe–Galician Candidacy (BNG–Nós) 119,446 8.33 –1.78 6 –1
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 48,553 3.38 New 0 ±0
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 15,135 1.06 +0.50 0 ±0
Ourensan Democracy (DO) 7,723 0.54 +0.25 0 ±0
Commitment to Galicia (CxG) 4,109 0.29 –0.72 0 ±0
Anti-Corruption and Justice Party (PAyJ) 2,535 0.18 New 0 ±0
Let's Win Galicia: Yes We Can (Gañemos) 2,344 0.16 New 0 ±0
Zero CutsGreen Group (Recortes Cero–GV) 2,276 0.16 New 0 ±0
Citizens–Centrum (C–C) 1,534 0.11 New 0 ±0
Communists of Galicia (PCPE–CdG) 1,263 0.09 –0.03 0 ±0
Blank Seats (EB) 1,111 0.08 –1.11 0 ±0
Citizens of Galicia Democratic Action (ADCG) 651 0.05 New 0 ±0
XXI Convergence (C21) 493 0.03 –0.04 0 ±0
Independent Alternative of Galicia (AIdG) 367 0.03 New 0 ±0
United for the Future! (Unidos SI–DEF) 296 0.02 New 0 ±0
Galicia New Way (VN) 281 0.02 New 0 ±0
Libertarian Party (P–LIB) 210 0.01 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 14,037 0.98 –1.68
Total 1,434,418 75 ±0
Valid votes 1,434,418 99.00 +1.53
Invalid votes 14,544 1.00 –1.53
Votes cast / turnout 1,448,962 53.63 –1.28
Abstentions 1,252,970 46.37 +1.28
Registered voters 2,701,932
Sources[40][61]
Footnotes:
Popular vote
PP
47.56%
En Marea
19.07%
PSdeG–PSOE
17.87%
BNGNós
8.33%
C's
3.38%
PACMA
1.06%
Others
1.76%
Blank ballots
0.98%
Seats
PP
54.67%
En Marea
18.67%
PSdeG–PSOE
18.67%
BNGNós
8.00%

Distribution by constituency

Constituency PP En Marea PSdeG BNGNós
% S % S % S % S
A Coruña 47.8 13 19.4 5 17.2 5 8.8 2
Lugo 52.8 8 15.4 2 19.1 3 7.4 1
Ourense 53.1 9 13.8 2 17.6 2 6.0 1
Pontevedra 43.3 11 22.0 5 18.4 4 9.0 2
Total 47.6 41 19.1 14 17.9 14 8.3 6
Sources[40][61]

Aftermath

Under Article 15 of the Statute, investiture processes to elect the president of the Regional Government of Galicia required of an absolute majority—more than half the votes cast—to be obtained in the first ballot. If unsuccessful, a new ballot would be held 24 hours later requiring only of a simple majority—more affirmative than negative votes—to succeed. If the proposed candidate was not elected, successive proposals were to be transacted under the same procedure.[13]

Investiture
Alberto Núñez Feijóo (PP)
Ballot → 10 November 2016
Required majority → 38 out of 75 checkY
Yes
  • PP (41)
41 / 75
No
34 / 75
Abstentions
0 / 75
Absentees
0 / 75
Sources[40]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Results for AGE in the 2012 election.
  2. ^ Carmen Iglesias, former EU legislator.[42]
  3. ^ Bilingual slogan with a grammar mistake in the Galician part. It should be « Galicia merece máis ».
  4. ^ Denotes a main invitee attending the event.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Within En Marea.

References

Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "Feijóo obtiene la mayoría absoluta y las Mareas igualan con el PSOE, según los sondeos". lainformacion.com (in Spanish). 25 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Sondeos a pie de urna elecciones gallegas y vascas 2016". El Mundo (in Spanish). 25 September 2016.
  3. ^ "Feijoo revalidaría la mayoría absoluta, según Sondaxe". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 25 September 2016.
  4. ^ "El PP revalida la mayoría absoluta en Galicia y En Marea supera al PSOE en votos, según GAD3". ABC (in Spanish). 25 September 2016.
  5. ^ "Análisis de precisión: Encuesta publicada a las 20:00H (25-S)". GAD3 (in Spanish). 25 September 2016.
  6. ^ "La última encuesta que la ley electoral permite difundir da 39 escaños al PP". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 20 September 2016.
  7. ^ "El BNG araña un escaño en A Coruña al PSOE y este otro a En Marea en Ourense". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 19 September 2016.
  8. ^ "Elecciones gallegas: El PP conseguiría 38 diputados, y los grupos de izquierdas, 36". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  9. ^ "El PP volverá a gobernar Galicia con mayoría absoluta". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 17 September 2016.
  10. ^ "El PSOE se hunde en País Vasco y queda tras En Marea en Galicia". La Razón (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  11. ^ "Estimación de voto en Galicia" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 18 September 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  12. ^ "Estimación de voto en Galicia (Por provincias)" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  13. ^ "Feijóo revalidará la mayoría absoluta sin sufrir ningún desgaste". El Mundo (in Spanish). 17 September 2016.
  14. ^ "El PP araña un escaño a En Marea, que pierde ventaja sobre el PSOE". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 17 September 2016.
  15. ^ "El PP se aproxima a una mayoría absoluta sin precedentes en Galicia". Atlántico (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  16. ^ "El PP consolida su mayoría absoluta en Galicia con un PSOE hundido". ABC (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d "Encuesta socio-electoral en Galicia". GAD3 (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  18. ^ "El BNG crece a costa de En Marea y de Ciudadanos y subiría a 4 escaños". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 16 September 2016.
  19. ^ "La encuesta de Sondaxe: El arranque de la campaña no aclara la configuración del futuro Gobierno". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 15 September 2016.
  20. ^ "Feijóo lograría una amplia mayoría absoluta y En Marea rebasaría al PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 17 September 2016.
  21. ^ "Sondeo preelectoral en Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 16 September 2016.
  22. ^ "Posible mayoría absoluta de Feijóo en las elecciones gallegas". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  23. ^ "Empate técnico entre PP y la izquierda". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 14 September 2016.
  24. ^ "Los datos de la encuesta del CIS dan una gran ventaja a En Marea sobre el PSdeG que su 'cocina' no ha reflejado". Público (in Spanish). 11 September 2016.
  25. ^ "En Marea ganaría un escaño, el PSOE perdería otro y la nacionalista Ana Pontón se quedaría sin acta". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 13 September 2016.
  26. ^ "El PSdeG remonta a costa de En Marea". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 12 September 2016.
  27. ^ "Feijoo conservaría la mayoría absoluta pese a perder tres escaños". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 11 September 2016.
  28. ^ "GALICIA (Autonómicas), Septiembre 2016. Sondeo Einvenio". Electograph (in Spanish). 18 September 2016.
  29. ^ "La crisis de la oposición empuja al PP hacia otra mayoría absoluta". Atlántico (in Spanish). 11 September 2016.
  30. ^ "GALICIA (Autonómicas), Septiembre 2016. Sondeo Infortécnica". Electograph (in Spanish). 11 September 2016.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Preelectoral de Galicia. Elecciones autonómicas 2016 (Estudio nº 3153. Agosto-Septiembre 2016)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 8 September 2016.
  32. ^ "El PP gana en Galicia y el PNV en Euskadi". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 9 September 2016.
  33. ^ "En Marea desbancaría al PSOE como líder de una hipotética coalición multipartita". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 28 August 2016.
  34. ^ "El PP tiene muchas posibilidades de lograr de nuevo la mayoría absoluta". Atlántico (in Spanish). 28 August 2016.
  35. ^ "Feijóo mantiene su mayoría absoluta". La Razón (in Spanish). 28 August 2016.
  36. ^ "El PP conserva la Xunta" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 28 August 2016.
  37. ^ "Un puñado de votos podrían inclinar el Gobierno hacia el PP o cuatro partidos". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 7 August 2016.
  38. ^ "Podemos podría obtener grupo propio". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 7 August 2016.
  39. ^ "El PP aguanta en Galicia y podría lograr su tercera mayoría absoluta". ABC (in Spanish). 10 April 2016.
  40. ^ a b c "Encuesta socio-electoral en Galicia". GAD3 (in Spanish). 7 April 2016.
  41. ^ "En Galicia el PP perdería la mayoría absoluta, pero gobernaría con Ciudadanos". Twitter (in Spanish). 17 January 2016.
  42. ^ a b "Podemos conquista los votos de AGE y BNG y casi iguala al PSOE en Galicia". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 9 November 2014.
  43. ^ "Proyección del resultado de las europeas en los parlamentos autonómicos". El País (in Spanish). 31 May 2014.
  44. ^ "Feijoo salva la mayoría, pero cede tres escaños frente a una izquierda al alza". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 20 October 2013.
  45. ^ "La crisis y los escándalos hacen retroceder cinco escaños al PP". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 10 February 2013.
Other
  1. ^ "Urkullu adelanta las elecciones vascas al 25 de septiembre". El Mundo (in Spanish). 29 July 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  2. ^ "Urkullu convoca las elecciones vascas el 25 de septiembre". El País (in Spanish). 29 July 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Feijóo adelanta las elecciones gallegas al 25 de septiembre". El País (in Spanish). 1 August 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Feijóo logra la única mayoría absoluta de España y el PSOE pincha, superado en votos por En Marea". El Mundo (in Spanish). 25 September 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  5. ^ "El PP coge aire en las urnas gallegas y vascas frente a un PSOE en caída libre". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 26 September 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  6. ^ "Susana Díaz quiere retrasar el congreso y exige a Pedro Sánchez que asuma "responsabilidades"". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 September 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  7. ^ "El PSOE andaluz estalla e inicia una guerra en campo abierto contra Sánchez". Público (in Spanish). 26 September 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  8. ^ "Media ejecutiva estudia dimitir para forzar la salida de Pedro Sánchez". El País (in Spanish). 27 September 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Dimite media ejecutiva del PSOE para forzar el cese de Pedro Sánchez". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 28 September 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Pedro Sánchez dimite como secretario general del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 2 October 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Rajoy, investido presidente gracias a la abstención de todos los diputados del PSOE excepto 15". El Mundo (in Spanish). 29 October 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Pedro Sánchez vuelve a ser el secretario general del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 23 May 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d "Ley Orgánica 1/1981, de 6 de abril, de Estatuto de Autonomía para Galicia". Organic Law No. 1 of 6 April 1981 (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  14. ^ Reig Pellicer, Naiara (16 December 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  15. ^ a b c "Ley 8/1985, de 13 de agosto, de elecciones al Parlamento de Galicia". Law No. 2 of 13 August 1985 (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  16. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on 2017-07-30. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Ley 1/1983, de 22 de febrero, de normas reguladoras de la Xunta y su Presidencia". Law No. 1 of 22 February 1983 (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  18. ^ "Feijóo a Rajoy sobre corrupción: "Había que haber actuado antes"". El País (in Spanish). 27 November 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  19. ^ "El PP gallego obtiene en las europeas el peor resultado de su historia". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 26 May 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  20. ^ "Las 'mareas' inundan Galicia y engullen a los partidos tradicionales". El País (in Spanish). 25 May 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  21. ^ "El fenómeno de las 'mareas' altera el tablero en Galicia". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 May 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  22. ^ "Feijóo camufla los malos resultados del PP en Galicia y proclama su 'lealtad' a Rajoy". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 28 May 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  23. ^ "El PP gallego encaja el peor resultado de su historia en unas generales". El País (in Spanish). 21 December 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  24. ^ "Feijóo superaría la mayoría absoluta por la mínima si en las autonómicas se repite el resultado del 26-J". Público (in Spanish). 26 June 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
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  26. ^ "Besteiro será el nuevo líder de los socialistas gallegos". El Mundo (in Spanish). 6 September 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
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2016 Galician regional election
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